DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Cason-D usesCason-D consists of Alfacalcidol, Calcium Carbonate, Zinc.
Cason-D (Alfacalcidol) is an active metabolite of Vitamin D, which performs important functions in regulation of the calcium balance and the bone metabolism. Cason-D (Alfacalcidol) is Vitamin D-hormone analog which is activated by the enzyme 25-hydroxylase in the liver for systemic and in osteoblasts for local D-hormone actions. It possesses a unique pattern of pleiotropic effects on, e.g. gut, bone, pararthyroids, muscle and brain. Cason-D (Alfacalcidol) is superior to plain vitamin D (cholecalciferol) because the final kidney activation of the latter is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism. (PMID:17438884,17668216)
Indication: Cason-D (Alfacalcidol) is an active metabolite of Vitamin D, which performs important functions in regulation of the calcium balance and the bone metabolism.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate is a phosphate binder indicated to reduce serum phosphorus in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD).
- Calcium acetate is a phosphate binder indicated for the reduction of serum phosphorus in patients with end stage renal disease. (1)
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended initial dose of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate for the adult dialysis patient is 2 capsules with each meal. Increase the dose gradually to lower serum phosphorus levels to the target range, as long as hypercalcemia does not develop. Most patients require 3 to 4 capsules with each meal.
- Starting dose is 2 capsules with each meal. (2)
- Titrate the dose every 2 to 3 weeks until acceptable serum phosphorus level is reached. Most patients require 3 to 4 capsules with each meal. (2)
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Capsule: 667 mg Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate capsule.
- Capsule: 667 mg Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate capsule. (3)
Patients with hypercalcemia.
- Hypercalcemia. (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- Treat mild hypercalcemia by reducing or interrupting Cason-D acetate and Vitamin D. Severe hypercalcemia may require hemodialysis and discontinuation of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate. (5.1)
- Hypercalcemia may aggravate digitalis toxicity. (5.2)
Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia when treated with Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate), including Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate. Avoid the use of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) supplements, including Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) based nonprescription antacids, concurrently with Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate.
An overdose of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate may lead to progressive hypercalcemia, which may require emergency measures. Therefore, early in the treatment phase during the dosage adjustment period, monitor serum Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) levels twice weekly. Should hypercalcemia develop, reduce the Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate dosage, or discontinue the treatment, depending on the severity of hypercalcemia
More severe hypercalcemia (Ca >12 mg/dL) is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor and coma. Severe hypercalcemia can be treated by acute hemodialysis and discontinuing Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate therapy.
Mild hypercalcemia (10.5 to 11.9 mg/dL) may be asymptomatic or manifest as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Mild hypercalcemia is usually controlled by reducing the Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate dose or temporarily discontinuing therapy. Decreasing or discontinuing Vitamin D therapy is recommended as well.
Chronic hypercalcemia may lead to vascular calcification and other soft-tissue calcification. Radiographic evaluation of suspected anatomical regions may be helpful in early detection of soft tissue calcification. The long term effect of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate on the progression of vascular or soft tissue calcification has not been determined.
Hypercalcemia (>11 mg/dL) was reported in 16% of patients in a 3 month study of solid dose formulation of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate; all cases resolved upon lowering the dose or discontinuing treatment.
Maintain the serum calcium-phosphorus (Ca x P) product below 55 mg2/dL2.
5.2 Concomitant Use with Medications
Hypercalcemia may aggravate digitalis toxicity.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
Hypercalcemia is discussed elsewhere [see Warnings and Precautions ].
- The most common (>10%) adverse reactions are hypercalcemia, nausea and vomiting. (6.1)
- In clinical studies, patients have occasionally experienced nausea during Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate therapy. (6)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp. at 1-800-962-8364 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch
6.1 Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In clinical studies, Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate has been generally well tolerated.
Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate was studied in a 3 month, open-label, non-randomized study of 98 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients and an alternate liquid formulation of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate was studied in a two week double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with 69 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients. Adverse reactions (>2% on treatment) from these trials are presented in Table 1.
Mild hypercalcemia may be asymptomatic or manifest itself as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. More severe hypercalcemia is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor, and coma. Decreasing dialysate Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) concentration could reduce the incidence and severity of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate-induced hypercalcemia. Isolated cases pruritus have been reported, which may represent allergic reactions.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate: dizziness, edema, and weakness.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
The drug interaction of Cason-D acetate is characterized by the potential of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) to bind to drugs with anionic functions (e.g., carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups). Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones via this mechanism.
There are no empirical data on avoiding drug interactions between Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate and most concomitant drugs. When administering an oral medication with Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate where a reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have a clinically significant effect on its safety or efficacy, administer the drug one hour before or three hours after Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate. Monitor blood levels of the concomitant drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range. Patients taking anti-arrhythmic medications for the control of arrhythmias and anti-seizure medications for the control of seizure disorders were excluded from the clinical trials with all forms of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate.
- Calcium acetate may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones. (7)
- When clinically significant drug interactions are expected, administer the drug at least one hour before or at least three hours after Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate or consider monitoring blood levels of the drug. (7)
In a study of 15 healthy subjects, a co-administered single dose of 4 Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate tablets, approximately 2.7g, decreased the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by approximately 50%.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C:
Cason-D acetate capsules contains Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate, and there are no adequate and well controlled studies of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate use in pregnant women. Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia with Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1 ) ]. Maintenance of normal serum Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) levels is important for maternal and fetal well being. Hypercalcemia during pregnancy may increase the risk for maternal and neonatal complications such as stillbirth, preterm delivery, and neonatal hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate treatment, as recommended, is not expected to harm a fetus if maternal Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) levels are properly monitored during and following treatment.
8.2 Labor and Delivery
The effects of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate on labor and delivery are unknown.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
Cason-D Acetate Capsules contains Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate and is excreted in human milk. Human milk feeding by a mother receiving Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate is not expected to harm an infant, provided maternal serum Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) levels are appropriately monitored.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Administration of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate in excess of the appropriate daily dosage may result in hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate acts as a phosphate binder. Its chemical name is Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate. Its molecular formula is C4H6CaO4, and its molecular weight is 158.17. Its structural formula is:
Each white opaque/blue opaque capsule contains 667 mg of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate USP (anhydrous; Ca(CH3COO)2; MW=158.17 grams) equal to 169 mg (8.45 mEq) Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate), polyethylene glycol 8000 and magnesium stearate. Each capsule shell contains: black monogramming ink, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Red #3, gelatin and titanium dioxide. The black monogramming ink contains: ammonium hydroxide, iron oxide black, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol and shellac glaze.
Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) Acetate Capsules are administered orally for the control of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal failure.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Patients with ESRD retain phosphorus and can develop hyperphosphatemia. High serum phosphorus can precipitate serum Cason-D resulting in ectopic calcification. Hyperphosphatemia also plays a role in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with ESRD.
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate, when taken with meals, combines with dietary phosphate to form an insoluble Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) phosphate complex, which is excreted in the feces, resulting in decreased serum phosphorus concentration.
Orally administered Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate from pharmaceutical dosage forms is systemically absorbed up to approximately 40% under fasting conditions and up to approximately 30% under nonfasting conditions. This range represents data from both healthy subjects and renal dialysis patients under various conditions.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or fertility studies have been conducted with Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
Effectiveness of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate in decreasing serum phosphorus has been demonstrated in two studies of the Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate solid oral dosage form.
Ninety-one patients with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing hemodialysis and were hyperphosphatemic (serum phosphorus >5.5 mg/dL) following a 1 week phosphate binder washout period contributed efficacy data to an open-label, non-randomized study.
The patients received Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate 667 mg tablets at each meal for a period of 12 weeks. The initial starting dose was 2 tablets per meal for 3 meals a day, and the dose was adjusted as necessary to control serum phosphorus levels. The average final dose after 12 weeks of treatment was 3.4 tablets per meal. Although there was a decrease in serum phosphorus, in the absence of a control group the true magnitude of effect is uncertain.
The data presented in Table 2 demonstrate the efficacy of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease patients. The effects on serum Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) levels are also presented.
There was a 30% decrease in serum phosphorus levels during the 12 week study period (p<0.01). Two-thirds of the decline occurred in the first month of the study. Serum Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) increased 9% during the study mostly in the first month of the study.
Treatment with the phosphate binder was discontinued for patients from the open-label study, and those patients whose serum phosphorus exceeded 5.5 mg/dL were eligible for entry into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Patients were randomized to receive Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate or placebo, and each continued to receive the same number of tablets as had been individually established during the previous study. Following 2 weeks of treatment, patients switched to the alternative therapy for an additional 2 weeks.
The phosphate binding effect of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate is shown in the Table 3.
Overall, 2 weeks of treatment with Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate statistically significantly (p<0.01) decreased serum phosphorus by a mean of 19% and increased serum Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) by a statistically significant (p<0.01) but clinically unimportant mean of 7%.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) Acetate Capsules
667 mg capsule is supplied as a white opaque/blue opaque capsule, imprinted with “54 215” on the cap and body.
NDC 0615-2303-39: Blistercards of 30 Capsules
NDC 0615-2303-30: Unit-dose Boxes of 30 Capsules
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Inform patients to take Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate capsules with meals, adhere to their prescribed diets, and avoid the use of Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) supplements including nonprescription antacids. Inform the patients about the symptoms of hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1) ].
Advise patients who are taking an oral medication where reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have clinically significant effect on its safety or efficacy to take the drug one hour before or three hours after Cason-D (Calcium Carbonate) acetate capsules.
Distr. by: West-Ward
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Revised April 2016
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Cason-D (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for TPN. Administration helps to maintain Cason-D (Zinc) serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores, and subsequent deficiency symptoms.
Direct intramuscular or intravenous injection of Cason-D (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is contraindicated as the acidic pH of the solution (2) may cause considerable tissue irritation.
Severe kidney disease may make it necessary to reduce or omit chromium and Cason-D (Zinc) doses because these elements are primarily eliminated in the urine.
WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.
Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.
Do not use unless the solution is clear and the seal is intact.
Zinc 1 mg/mL should only be used in conjunction with a pharmacy directed admixture program using aseptic technique in a laminar flow environment; it should be used promptly and in a single operation without any repeated penetrations. Solution contains no preservatives; discard unused portion immediately after admixture procedure is completed.
Zinc should not be given undiluted by direct injection into a peripheral vein because of the likelihood of infusion phlebitis and the potential for increased excretory loss of Cason-D (Zinc) from a bolus injection. Administration of Cason-D (Zinc) in the absence of copper may cause a decrease in serum copper levels.
Periodic determinations of serum copper as well as Cason-D (Zinc) are suggested as a guideline for subsequent Cason-D (Zinc) administration.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility
Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Cason-D 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) have not been performed, nor have studies been done to assess mutagenesis or impairment of fertility.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Cason-D (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is administered to a nursing woman.
Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Cason-D chloride. It is also not known whether Cason-D (Zinc) chloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Cason-D (Zinc) chloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
An evaluation of current literature revealed no clinical experience identifying differences in response between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
Single intravenous doses of 1 to 2 mg zinc/kg body weight have been given to adult leukemic patients without toxic manifestations. However, acute toxicity was reported in an adult when 10 mg Cason-D (Zinc) was infused over a period of one hour on each of four consecutive days. Profuse sweating, decreased level of consciousness, blurred vision, tachycardia (140/min), and marked hypothermia (94.2° F) on the fourth day were accompanied by a serum Cason-D (Zinc) concentration of 207 mcg/dl. Symptoms abated within three hours.
Hyperamylasemia may be a sign of impending Cason-D (Zinc) overdosage; patients receiving an inadvertent overdose (25 mg zinc/liter of TPN solution, equivalent to 50 to 70 mg zinc/day) developed hyperamylasemia (557 to 1850 Klein units; normal: 130 to 310).
Death resulted from an overdosage in which 1683 mg Cason-D (Zinc) was delivered intravenously over the course of 60 hours to a 72 year old patient.
Symptoms of Cason-D (Zinc) toxicity included hypotension (80/40 mm Hg), pulmonary edema, diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice, and oliguria, with a serum Cason-D (Zinc) level of 4184 mcg/dl.
Calcium supplements may confer a protective effect against Cason-D (Zinc) toxicity.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Cason-D (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) contains 1 mg zinc/mL and is administered intravenously only after dilution. The additive should be diluted prior to administration in a volume of fluid not less than 100 mL. For the metabolically stable adult receiving TPN, the suggested intravenous dosage is 2.5 to 4 mg zinc/day (2.5 to 4 mL/day). An additional 2 mg zinc/day (2 mL/day) is suggested for acute catabolic states. For the stable adult with fluid loss from the small bowel, an additional 12.2 mg zinc/liter of small bowel fluid lost (12.2 mL/liter of small bowel fluid lost), or an additional 17.1 mg zinc/kg of stool or ileostomy output (17.1 mL/kg of stool or ileostomy output) is recommended. Frequent monitoring of Cason-D (Zinc) blood levels is suggested for patients receiving more than the usual maintenance dosage level of Cason-D (Zinc).
For full term infants and children up to 5 years of age, 100 mcg zinc/kg/day (0.1 mL/kg/day) is recommended. For premature infants (birth weight less than 1500 g) up to 3 kg in body weight, 300 mcg zinc/kg/day (0.3 mL/kg/day) is suggested.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. See PRECAUTIONS.
Cason-D (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is supplied in 10 mL Plastic Vials (List No. 4090).
Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F).
Revised: October, 2004
© Hospira 2004 EN-0488 Printed in USA
HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USA
10 mL Vial
Cason-D (Zinc) Chloride Inj., USP
FOR I.V. USE ONLY AFTER DILUTION.
HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USA
Cason-D pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Cason-D available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Cason-D destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Cason-D Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Cason-D pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Cason-D?
Depending on the reaction of the Cason-D after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Cason-D not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Cason-D addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Cason-D, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Cason-D consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Visitor reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology