DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Carboplatin DBL

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Carboplatin DBL uses



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WARNING

Carboplatin DBL injection should be administered under the supervision of a qualified physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Appropriate management of therapy and complications is possible only when adequate treatment facilities are readily available.

Bone marrow suppression is dose related and may be severe, resulting in infection and/or bleeding. Anemia may be cumulative and may require transfusion support. Vomiting is another frequent drug-related side effect.

Anaphylactic-like reactions to Carboplatin DBL have been reported and may occur within minutes of Carboplatin DBL administration. Epinephrine, corticosteroids, and antihistamines have been employed to alleviate symptoms.

DESCRIPTION

Carboplatin DBL Injection is for intravenous administration. Each mL contains equivalent to 10 mg of Carboplatin DBL in Water for Injection. No other preservatives or additives are present. The aqueous solution is sterile and nonpyrogenic. Carboplatin DBL is a platinum coordination compound. The chemical name for Carboplatin DBL is platinum, diammine [1,1-cyclobutane-dicarboxylato(2-)-0,0']-,(SP-4-2), and Carboplatin DBL has the following structural formula:

Carboplatin DBL is a crystalline powder with the molecular formula of C6H12N2O4Pt and a molecular weight of 371.25. It is soluble in water at a rate of approximately 14 mg/mL, and the pH of a 1% solution is 5 to 7. It is virtually insoluble in ethanol, acetone, and dimethylacetamide.

Chemical Structure

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Carboplatin DBL, like cisplatin, produces predominantly interstrand DNA cross-links rather than DNA-protein cross-links. This effect is apparently cell-cycle nonspecific. The aquation of Carboplatin DBL, which is thought to produce the active species, occurs at a slower rate than in the case of cisplatin. Despite this difference, it appears that both Carboplatin DBL and cisplatin induce equal numbers of drug-DNA cross-links, causing equivalent lesions and biological effects. The differences in potencies for Carboplatin DBL and cisplatin appear to be directly related to the difference in aquation rates.

In patients with creatinine clearances of about 60 mL/min or greater, plasma levels of intact Carboplatin DBL decay in a biphasic manner after a 30-minute intravenous infusion of 300 mg/m2 to 500 mg/m2 of Carboplatin DBL. The initial plasma half-life (alpha) was found to be 1.1 to 2 hours (n=6), and the postdistribution plasma half-life (beta) was found to be 2.6 to 5.9 hours (n=6). The total body clearance, apparent volume of distribution and mean residence time for Carboplatin DBL are 4.4 L/hour, 16 L and 3.5 hours, respectively. The Cmax values and areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves from 0 to infinity (AUC inf) increase linearly with dose, although the increase was slightly more than dose proportional. Carboplatin DBL, therefore, exhibits linear pharmacokinetics over the dosing range studied (300 mg/m2 to 500 mg/m2).

Carboplatin DBL is not bound to plasma proteins. No significant quantities of protein-free, ultrafilterable platinum-containing species other than Carboplatin DBL are present in plasma. However, platinum from Carboplatin DBL becomes irreversibly bound to plasma proteins and is slowly eliminated with a minimum half-life of 5 days.

The major route of elimination of Carboplatin DBL is renal excretion. Patients with creatinine clearances of approximately 60 mL/min or greater excrete 65% of the dose in the urine within 12 hours and 71% of the dose within 24 hours. All of the platinum in the 24-hour urine is present as Carboplatin DBL. Only 3% to 5% of the administered platinum is excreted in the urine between 24 and 96 hours. There are insufficient data to determine whether biliary excretion occurs.

In patients with creatinine clearances below 60 mL/min the total body and renal clearances of Carboplatin DBL decrease as the creatinine clearance decreases. Carboplatin DBL dosages should therefore be reduced in these patients (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).

The primary determinant of Carboplatin DBL clearance is glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and this parameter of renal function is often decreased in elderly patients. Dosing formulas incorporating estimates of GFR (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ) to provide predictable Carboplatin DBL plasma AUCs should be used in elderly patients to minimize the risk of toxicity.

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CLINICAL STUDIES

Use with Cyclophosphamide for Initial Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

In two prospectively randomized, controlled studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute of Canada, Clinical Trials Group and the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG), 789 chemotherapy naive patients with advanced ovarian cancer were treated with Carboplatin DBL or cisplatin, both in combination with cyclophosphamide every 28 days for 6 courses before surgical reevaluation. The following results were obtained from both studies:

Comparative Efficacy

NCIC SWOG

Number of patients randomized


447


342


Median age (years)


60


62


Dose of cisplatin


75 mg/m2


100 mg/m2


Dose of Carboplatin DBL


300 mg/m2


300 mg/m2


Dose of cyclophosphamide


600 mg/m2


600 mg/m2


Residual tumor <2 cm (number of patients)


39% (174/447)


14% (49/342)

NCIC SWOG

Carboplatin DBL (number of patients)


60% (48/80)


58% (48/83)


Cisplatin (number of patients)


58% (49/85)


43% (33/76)


95% C.I. of difference

(Carboplatin – Cisplatin)


(-13.9%, 18.6%)


(-2.3%, 31.1%)

NCIC SWOG

Carboplatin DBL (number of patients)


11% (24/224)


10% (17/171)


Cisplatin (number of patients)


15% (33/223)


10% (17/171)


95% C.I. of difference

(Carboplatin – Cisplatin)


(-10.7%, 2.5%)


(-6.9%, 6.9%)

NCIC SWOG

Median


Carboplatin DBL


59 weeks


49 weeks


Cisplatin


61 weeks


47 weeks


2-year PFS Kaplan-Meier Estimates

Unrelated deaths occuring in the absence of progression were counted as events (progression) in this analysis.


Carboplatin DBL


31%


21%


Cisplatin


31%


21%


95% C.I. of difference

(Carboplatin – Cisplatin)


(-9.3, 8.7)


(-9, 9.4)


3-year PFS


Carboplatin DBL


19%


8%


Cisplatin


23%


14%


95% C.I. of difference

(Carboplatin – Cisplatin)


(-11.5, 4.5)


(-14.1, 0.3)


Hazard Ratio Analysis adjusted for factors found to be of prognostic significance were consistent with unadjusted analysis.


1.10


1.02


95% C.I.

(Carboplatin – Cisplatin)


(0.89, 1.35)


(0.81, 1.29)

NCIC SWOG

Median


Carboplatin DBL


110 weeks


86 weeks


Cisplatin


99 weeks


79 weeks


2-year Survival*


Carboplatin DBL


51.9%


40.2%


Cisplatin


48.4%


39%


95% C.I. of difference

(Carboplatin – Cisplatin)


(-6.2, 13.2)


(-9.8, 12.2)


3-year Survival*


Carboplatin DBL


34.6%


18.3%


Cisplatin


33.1%


24.9%


95% C.I. of difference

(Carboplatin – Cisplatin)


(-7.7, 10.7)


(-15.9, 2.7)


Hazard Ratio Analysis adjusted for factors found to be of prognostic significance were consistent with unadjusted analysis.


0.98


1.01


95% C.I.

(Carboplatin – Cisplatin)


(0.78, 1.23)


(0.78, 1.30)


* Kaplan-Meier Estimates

Comparative Toxicity

The pattern of toxicity exerted by the carboplatin-containing regimen was significantly different from that of the cisplatin-containing combinations. Differences between the two studies may be explained by different cisplatin dosages and by different supportive care.

The carboplatin-containing regimen induced significantly more thrombocytopenia and, in one study, significantly more leukopenia and more need for transfusional support. The cisplatin-containing regimen produced significantly more anemia in one study. However, no significant differences occurred in incidences of infections and hemorrhagic episodes.

Non-hematologic toxicities were significantly more frequent in the cisplatin-containing arms.

Carboplatin DBL Arm Percent Values are in percent of evaluable patients Cisplatin Arm Percent P-Values ns = not significant, p>0.05

Bone Marrow


Thrombocytopenia


< 100,000/mm3


70


29


< 0.001


< 50,000/mm3


41


6


< 0.001


Neutropenia


< 2000 cells/mm3


97


96


ns


< 1000 cells/mm3


81


79


ns


Leukopenia


< 4000 cells/mm3


98


97


ns


< 2000 cells/mm3


68


52


0.001


Anemia


< 11 g/dL


91


91


ns


< 8 g/dL


18


12


ns


Infections


14


12


ns


Bleeding


10


4


ns


Transfusions


42


31


0.018


Gastrointestinal


Nausea and vomiting


93


98


0.010


Vomiting


84


97


< 0.001


Other GI side effects


50


62


0.013


Neurologic


Peripheral neuropathies


16


42


< 0.001


Ototoxicity


13


33


< 0.001


Other sensory side effects


6


10


ns


Central neurotoxicity


28


40


0.009


Renal


Serum creatinine elevations


5


13


0.006


Blood urea elevations


17


31


< 0.001


Hepatic


Bilirubin elevations


5


3


ns


SGOT elevations


17


13


ns


Alkaline phosphatase elevations


-


-


-


Electrolytes loss


Sodium


10


20


0.005


Potassium


16


22


ns


Calcium


16


19


ns


Magnesium


63


88


< 0.001


Other side effects


Pain


36


37


ns


Asthenia


40


33


ns


Cardiovascular


15


19


ns


Respiratory


8


9


ns


Allergic


12


9


ns


Genitourinary


10


10


ns


Alopecia May have been affected by cyclophosphamide dosage delivered


50


62


0.017


Mucositis


10


9


ns

Carboplatin DBL Arm Percent Values are in percent of evaluable patients Cisplatin Arm Percent P-Values ns = not significant, p>0.05

Bone Marrow


Thrombocytopenia


< 100,000/mm3


59


35


< 0.001


< 50,000/mm3


22


11


0.006


Neutropenia


< 2000 cells/mm3


95


97


ns


< 1000 cells/mm3


84


78


ns


Leukopenia


< 4000 cells/mm3


97


97


ns


< 2000 cells/mm3


76


67


ns


Anemia


< 11 g/dL


88


87


ns


< 8 g/dL


8


24


< 0.001


Infections


18


21


ns


Bleeding


6


4


ns


Transfusions


25


33


ns


Gastrointestinal


Nausea and vomiting


94


96


ns


Vomiting


82


91


0.007


Other GI side effects


40


48


ns


Neurologic


Peripheral neuropathies


13


28


0.001


Ototoxicity


12


30


< 0.001


Other sensory side effects


4


6


ns


Central neurotoxicity


23


29


ns


Renal


Serum creatinine elevations


7


38


< 0.001


Blood urea elevations


-


-


-


Hepatic


Bilirubin elevations


5


3


ns


SGOT elevations


23


16


ns


Alkaline phosphatase elevations


29


20


ns


Electrolytes loss


Sodium


-


-


-


Potassium


-


-


-


Calcium


-


-


-


Magnesium


58


77


< 0.001


Other side effects


Pain


54


52


ns


Asthenia


43


46


ns


Cardiovascular


23


30


ns


Respiratory


12


11


ns


Allergic


10


11


ns


Genitourinary


11


13


ns


Alopecia May have been affected by cyclophosphamide dosage delivered


43


57


0.009


Mucositis


6


11


ns

Use as a Single Agent for Secondary Treatment of Advanced Ovarian Cancer

In two prospective, randomized controlled studies in patients with advanced ovarian cancer previously treated with chemotherapy, Carboplatin DBL achieved 6 clinical complete responses in 47 patients. The duration of these responses ranged from 45 to 71+ weeks.

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INDICATIONS

Initial Treatment of Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma

Carboplatin DBL Injection is indicated for the initial treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma in established combination with other approved chemotherapeutic agents. One established combination regimen consists of Carboplatin DBL and cyclophosphamide. Two randomized controlled studies conducted by the NCIC and SWOG with Carboplatin DBL versus cisplatin, both in combination with cyclophosphamide, have demonstrated equivalent overall survival between the two groups.

There is limited statistical power to demonstrate equivalence in overall pathologic complete response rates and long-term survival (≥3 years) because of the small number of patients with these outcomes: the small number of patients with residual tumor <2 cm after initial surgery also limits the statistical power to demonstrate equivalence in this subgroup.

Secondary Treatment of Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma

Carboplatin DBL is indicated for the palliative treatment of patients with ovarian carcinoma recurrent after prior chemotherapy, including patients who have been previously treated with cisplatin.

Within the group of patients previously treated with cisplatin, those who have developed progressive disease while receiving cisplatin therapy may have a decreased response rate.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Carboplatin DBL Injection is contraindicated in patients with a history of severe allergic reactions to cisplatin or other platinum-containing compounds.

Carboplatin DBL Injection should not be employed in patients with severe bone marrow depression or significant bleeding.

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WARNINGS

Bone marrow suppression (leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia) is dose-dependent and is also the dose-limiting toxicity. Peripheral blood counts should be frequently monitored during Carboplatin DBL treatment and, when appropriate, until recovery is achieved. Median nadir occurs at day 21 in patients receiving single-agent Carboplatin DBL. In general, single intermittent courses of Carboplatin DBL should not be repeated until leukocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts have recovered.

Since anemia is cumulative, transfusions may be needed during treatment with Carboplatin DBL particularly in patients receiving prolonged therapy.

Bone marrow suppression is increased in patients who have received prior therapy, especially regimens including cisplatin. Marrow suppression is also increased in patients with impaired kidney function. Initial Carboplatin DBL dosages in these patients should be appropriately reduced (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ) and blood counts should be carefully monitored between courses. The use of Carboplatin DBL in combination with other bone marrow suppressing therapies must be carefully managed with respect to dosage and timing in order to minimize additive effects.

Carboplatin DBL has limited nephrotoxic potential, but concomitant treatment with aminoglycosides has resulted in increased renal and/or audiologic toxicity, and caution must be exercised when a patient receives both drugs. Clinically significant hearing loss has been reported to occur in pediatric patients when Carboplatin DBL was administered at higher than recommended doses in combination with other ototoxic agents.

Carboplatin DBL can induce emesis, which can be more severe in patients previously receiving emetogenic therapy. The incidence and intensity of emesis have been reduced by using premedication with antiemetics. Although no conclusive efficacy data exist with the following schedules of Carboplatin DBL, lengthening the duration of single intravenous administration to 24 hours or dividing the total dose over 5 consecutive daily pulse doses has resulted in reduced emesis.

Although peripheral neurotoxicity is infrequent, its incidence is increased in patients older than 65 years and in patients previously treated with cisplatin. Pre-existing cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity does not worsen in about 70% of the patients receiving Carboplatin DBL as secondary treatment.

Loss of vision, which can be complete for light and colors, has been reported after the use of Carboplatin DBL with doses higher than those recommended in the package insert. Vision appears to recover totally or to a significant extent within weeks of stopping these high doses.

As in the case of other platinum-coordination compounds, allergic reactions to Carboplatin DBL have been reported. These may occur within minutes of administration and should be managed with appropriate supportive therapy. There is increased risk of allergic reactions including anaphylaxis in patients previously exposed to platinum therapy. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS: Allergic Reactions.)

High dosages of Carboplatin DBL (more than 4 times the recommended dose) have resulted in severe abnormalities of liver function tests.

Carboplatin DBL Injection may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Carboplatin DBL has been shown to be embryotoxic and teratogenic in rats. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant.

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PRECAUTIONS

General

Needles or intravenous administration sets containing aluminum parts that may come in contact with Carboplatin DBL injection should not be used for the preparation or administration of the drug. Aluminum can react with Carboplatin DBL causing precipitate formation and loss of potency.

Drug Interactions

The renal effects of nephrotoxic compounds may be potentiated by Carboplatin DBL.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The carcinogenic potential of Carboplatin DBL has not been studied, but compounds with similar mechanisms of action and mutagenicity profiles have been reported to be carcinogenic. Carboplatin DBL has been shown to be mutagenic both in vitro and in vivo. It has also been shown to be embryotoxic and teratogenic in rats receiving the drug during organogenesis. Secondary malignancies have been reported in association with multi-drug therapy.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category D

.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Carboplatin DBL is excreted in human milk. Because there is a possibility of toxicity in nursing infants secondary to Carboplatin DBL treatment of the mother, it is recommended that breast feeding be discontinued if the mother is treated with Carboplatin DBL injection.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Of the 789 patients in initial treatment combination therapy studies (NCIC and SWOG), 395 patients were treated with Carboplatin DBL in combination with cyclophosphamide. Of these, 141 were over 65 years of age and 22 were 75 years or older. In these trials, age was not a prognostic factor for survival. In terms of safety, elderly patients treated with Carboplatin DBL were more likely to develop severe thrombocytopenia than younger patients. In a combined database of 1,942 patients (414 were ≥65 years of age) that received single-agent Carboplatin DBL for different tumor types, a similar incidence of adverse events was seen in patients 65 years and older and in patients less than 65. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Because renal function is often decreased in the elderly, renal function should be considered in the selection of Carboplatin DBL dosage (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

For a comparison of toxicities when Carboplatin DBL or cisplatin was given in combination with cyclophosphamide, see CLINICAL STUDIES: Use with Cyclophosphamide for Initial Treatment of Ovarian Cancer: Comparative Toxicity .

First Line Combination Therapy Use with Cyclophosphamide for Initial Treatment of Ovarian Cancer: Data are based on the experience of 393 patients with ovarian cancer who received initial combination therapy with Carboplatin DBL and cyclophosphamide in two randomized controlled studies conducted by SWOG and NCIC (see CLINICAL STUDIES ).


Combination with cyclophosphamide as well as duration of treatment may be responsible for the differences that can be noted in the adverse experience table. Percent

Second Line Single Agent Therapy Single Agent Use for the Secondary Treatment of Ovarian Cancer: Data are based on the experience of 553 patients with previously treated ovarian carcinoma (regardless of baseline status) who received single-agent Carboplatin DBL.


In the narrative section that follows, the incidences of adverse events are based on data from 1,893 patients with various types of tumors who received Carboplatin DBL as single-agent therapy. Percent


Bone Marrow


Thrombocytopenia


< 100,000/mm3


66


62


< 50,000/mm3


33


35


Neutropenia


< 2000 cells/mm3


96


67


< 1000 cells/mm3


82


21


Leukopenia


< 4000 cells/mm3


97


85


< 2000 cells/mm3


71


26


Anemia


< 11 g/dL


90


90


< 8 g/dL


14


21


Infections


16


5


Bleeding


8


5


Transfusions


35


44


Gastrointestinal


Nausea and vomiting


93


92


Vomiting


83


81


Other GI side effects


46


21


Neurologic


Peripheral neuropathies


15


6


Ototoxicity


12


1


Other sensory side effects


5


1


Central neurotoxicity


26


5


Renal


Serum creatinine elevations


6


10


Blood urea elevations


17


22


Hepatic


Bilirubin elevations


5


5


SGOT elevations


20


19


Alkaline phosphatase elevations


29


37


Electrolytes loss


Sodium


10


47


Potassium


16


28


Calcium


16


31


Magnesium


61


43


Other side effects


Pain


44


23


Asthenia


41


11


Cardiovascular


19


6


Respiratory


10


6


Allergic


11


2


Genitourinary


10


2


Alopecia


49


2


Mucositis


8


1

Hematologic Toxicity

Bone marrow suppression is the dose-limiting toxicity of Carboplatin DBL. Thrombocytopenia with platelet counts below 50,000/mm3 occurs in 25% of the patients (35% of pretreated ovarian cancer patients); neutropenia with granulocyte counts below 1,000/mm3 occurs in 16% of the patients (21% of pretreated ovarian cancer patients); leukopenia with WBC counts below 2,000/mm3 occurs in 15% of the patients (26% of pretreated ovarian cancer patients). The nadir usually occurs about day 21 in patients receiving single-agent therapy. By day 28, 90% of patients have platelet counts above 100,000/mm3; 74% have neutrophil counts above 2,000/mm3; 67% have leukocyte counts above 4,000/mm3.

Marrow suppression is usually more severe in patients with impaired kidney function. Patients with poor performance status have also experienced a higher incidence of severe leukopenia and thrombocytopenia.

The hematologic effects, although usually reversible, have resulted in infectious or hemorrhagic complications in 5% of the patients treated with Carboplatin DBL, with drug related death occurring in less than 1% of the patients. Fever has also been reported in patients with neutropenia.

Anemia with hemoglobin less than 11 g/dL has been observed in 71% of the patients who started therapy with a baseline above that value. The incidence of anemia increases with increasing exposure to Carboplatin DBL. Transfusions have been administered to 26% of the patients treated with Carboplatin DBL (44% of previously treated ovarian cancer patients).

Bone marrow depression may be more severe when Carboplatin DBL is combined with other bone marrow suppressing drugs or with radiotherapy.

Gastrointestinal Toxicity

Vomiting occurs in 65% of the patients and in about one-third of these patients it is severe. Carboplatin DBL, as a single agent or in combination, is significantly less emetogenic than cisplatin; however, patients previously treated with emetogenic agents, especially cisplatin, appear to be more prone to vomiting. Nausea alone occurs in an additional 10% to 15% of patients. Both nausea and vomiting usually cease within 24 hours of treatment and are often responsive to antiemetic measures. Although no conclusive efficacy data exist with the following schedules, prolonged administration of Carboplatin DBL, either by continuous 24-hour infusion or by daily pulse doses given for 5 consecutive days, was associated with less severe vomiting than the single-dose intermittent schedule. Emesis was increased when Carboplatin DBL was used in combination with other emetogenic compounds. Other gastrointestinal effects observed frequently were pain, in 17% of the patients; diarrhea, in 6%; and constipation, also in 6%.

Neurologic Toxicity

Peripheral neuropathies have been observed in 4% of the patients receiving Carboplatin DBL (6% of pretreated ovarian cancer patients) with mild paresthesias occurring most frequently. Carboplatin DBL therapy produces significantly fewer and less severe neurologic side effects than does therapy with cisplatin. However, patients older than 65 years and/or previously treated with cisplatin appear to have an increased risk (10%) for peripheral neuropathies. In 70% of the patients with pre-existing cisplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity, there was no worsening of symptoms during therapy with Carboplatin DBL. Clinical ototoxicity and other sensory abnormalities such as visual disturbances and change in taste have been reported in only 1% of the patients. Central nervous system symptoms have been reported in 5% of the patients and appear to be most often related to the use of antiemetics.

Although the overall incidence of peripheral neurologic side effects induced by Carboplatin DBL is low, prolonged treatment, particularly in cisplatin pretreated patients may result in cumulative neurotoxicity.

Nephrotoxicity

Development of abnormal renal function test results is uncommon, despite the fact that Carboplatin DBL, unlike cisplatin, has usually been administered without high-volume fluid hydration and/or forced diuresis. The incidences of abnormal renal function tests reported are 6% for serum creatinine and 14% for blood urea nitrogen. Most of these reported abnormalities have been mild and about one-half of them were reversible.

Creatinine clearance has proven to be the most sensitive measure of kidney function in patients receiving Carboplatin DBL, and it appears to be the most useful test for correlating drug clearance and bone marrow suppression. Twenty-seven percent of the patients who had a baseline value of 60 mL/min or more demonstrated a reduction below this value during Carboplatin DBL therapy.

Hepatic Toxicity

The incidences of abnormal liver function tests in patients with normal baseline values were reported as follows: total bilirubin, 5%; SGOT, 15%; and alkaline phosphatase, 24%; (5%, 19%, and 37%, respectively, in pretreated ovarian cancer patients). These abnormalities have generally been mild and reversible in about one-half of the cases, although the role of metastatic tumor in the liver may complicate the assessment in many patients. In a limited series of patients receiving very high dosages of Carboplatin DBL and autologous bone marrow transplantation, severe abnormalities of liver function tests were reported.

Electrolyte Changes

The incidences of abnormally decreased serum electrolyte values reported were as follows: sodium, 29%; potassium, 20%; calcium, 22%; and magnesium, 29%;. Electrolyte supplementation was not routinely administered concomitantly with Carboplatin DBL, and these electrolyte abnormalities were rarely associated with symptoms.

Allergic Reactions

Hypersensitivity to Carboplatin DBL has been reported in 2% of the patients. These allergic reactions have been similar in nature and severity to those reported with other platinum-containing compounds, ie, rash, urticaria, erythema, pruritus, and rarely bronchospasm and hypotension. Anaphylactic reactions have been reported as part of post-marketing surveillance (see WARNINGS ). These reactions have been successfully managed with standard epinephrine, corticosteroid, and antihistamine therapy.

Injection Site Reaction

Injection site reactions, including redness, swelling, and pain, have been reported during post-marketing surveillance. Necrosis associated with extravasation has also been reported.

Other Events

Pain and asthenia were the most frequently reported miscellaneous adverse effects; their relationship to the tumor and to anemia was likely. Alopecia was reported (3%). Cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and mucosal side effects have occurred in 6% or less of the patients. Cardiovascular events (cardiac failure, embolism, cerebrovascular accidents) were fatal in less than 1% of the patients and did not appear to be related to chemotherapy. Cancer-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome has been reported rarely.

Malaise, anorexia and hypertension, dehydration, and stomatitits have been reported as part of post-marketing surveillance.

OVERDOSAGE

There is no known antidote for Carboplatin DBL injection overdosage. The anticipated complications of overdosage would be secondary to bone marrow suppression and/or hepatic toxicity.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

NOTE : Aluminum reacts with Carboplatin DBL causing precipitate formation and loss of potency, therefore, needles or intravenous sets containing aluminum parts that may come in contact with the drug must not be used for the preparation or administration of Carboplatin DBL Injection.

Single-Agent Therapy

Carboplatin DBL Injection, as a single agent, has been shown to be effective in patients with recurrent ovarian carcinoma at a dosage of 360 mg/m2 IV on day 1 every 4 weeks. In general, however, single intermittent courses of Carboplatin DBL Injection should not be repeated until the neutrophil count is at least 2,000 and the platelet count is at least 100,000.

Combination Therapy with Cyclophosphamide

In the chemotherapy of advanced ovarian cancer, an effective combination for previously untreated patients consists of:

Carboplatin DBL Injection - 300 mg/m2 IV on day 1 every 4 weeks for 6 cycles (alternatively see Formula Dosing).

Cyclophosphamide-600 mg/m2 IV on day 1 every 4 weeks for 6 cycles. For directions regarding the use and administration of cyclophosphamide please refer to its package insert.

Intermittent courses of Carboplatin DBL Injection in combination with cyclophosphamide should not be repeated until the neutrophil count is at least 2,000 and the platelet count is at least 100,000.

Dose Adjustment Recommendations

Pretreatment platelet count and performance status are important prognostic factors for severity of myelosuppression in previously treated patients.

The suggested dose adjustments for single agent or combination therapy shown in the table below are modified from controlled trials in previously treated and untreated patients with ovarian carcinoma. Blood counts were done weekly, and the recommendations are based on the lowest post-treatment platelet or neutrophil value.

Platelets Neutrophils Adjusted Dose Percentages apply to Carboplatin DBL injection as a single agent or to both Carboplatin DBL and cyclophosphamide in combination. In the controlled studies, dosages were also adjusted to a lower level for severe myelosuppression. Escalations above 125% were not recommended for these studies.

(From Prior Course)


> 100,000


> 2,000


125%


50–100,000


500–2,000


No Adjustment


< 50,000


< 500


75%


Carboplatin DBL Injection is usually administered by an infusion lasting 15 minutes or longer. No pre- or post-treatment hydration or forced diuresis is required.

Patients with Impaired Kidney Function

Patients with creatinine clearance values below 60 mL/min are at increased risk of severe bone marrow suppression. In renal-impaired patients who received single-agent Carboplatin DBL therapy, the incidence of severe leukopenia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia has been about 25% when the dosage modifications in the table below have been used.

Baseline Creatinine Clearance Recommended Dose on Day1

41–59 mL/min


250 mg/m2


16–40 mL/min


200 mg/m2


The data available for patients with severely impaired kidney function (creatinine clearance below 15 mL/min) are too limited to permit a recommendation for treatment.

These dosing recommendations apply to the initial course of treatment. Subsequent dosages should be adjusted according to the patient's tolerance based on the degree of bone marrow suppression.

Formula Dosing

Another approach for determining the initial dose of Carboplatin DBL Injection is the use of mathematical formulae, which are based on a patient's pre-existing renal function or renal function and desired platelet nadir. Renal excretion is the major route of elimination for Carboplatin DBL.

The use of dosing formulae, as compared to empirical dose calculation based on body surface area, allows compensation for patient variations in pretreatment renal function that might otherwise result in either underdosing (in patients with above average renal function) or overdosing (in patients with impaired renal function).

A simple formula for calculating dosage, based upon a patient's glomerular filtration rate (GFR in mL/min) and Carboplatin DBL Injection target area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC in mg/mL∙min), has been proposed by Calvert. In these studies, GFR was measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance.

CALVERT FORMULA FOR Carboplatin DBL DOSING

Total Dose (mg)=(target AUC) × (GFR + 25)

Note: With the Calvert formula, the total dose of Carboplatin DBL is calculated in mg, not mg/m2.

The target AUC of 4 mg/mLmin to 6 mg/mLmin using single-agent Carboplatin DBL appears to provide the most appropriate dose range in previously treated patients. This study also showed a trend between the AUC of single-agent Carboplatin DBL administered to previously treated patients and the likelihood of developing toxicity.

% Actual Toxicity in Previously Treated Patients
AUC (mg/ mL∙min ) Gr 3 or Gr 4

Thrombocytopenia

Gr 3 or Gr 4

Leukopenia


4 to 5


16%


13%


6 to 7


33%


34%

Geriatric Dosing

Because renal function is often decreased in elderly patients, formula dosing of Carboplatin DBL Injection based on estimates of GFR should be used in elderly patients to provide predictable plasma Carboplatin DBL Injection AUCs and thereby minimize the risk of toxicity.

PREPARATION OF INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS

Carboplatin DBL Injection is a premixed aqueous solution of 10 mg/mL Carboplatin DBL.

Carboplatin DBL Injection, 10 mg/mL aqueous solution can be further diluted to concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/mL with 5% Dextrose in Water (D5W) or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP.

When prepared as directed, Carboplatin DBL Injection aqueous solutions are stable for 8 hours at room temperature (25°C). Since no antibacterial preservative is contained in the formulation, it is recommended that Carboplatin DBL Injection aqueous solutions be discarded 8 hours after dilution.

HOW SUPLIED

Carboplatin DBL Injection


NDC 66758-047-01:


50 mg/5 mL aqueous solution in multidose, USP Type I, amber glass vials.


NDC 66758-047-02:


150 mg/15 mL aqueous solution in multidose, USP Type I, amber glass vials.


NDC 66758-047-03:


450 mg/45 mL aqueous solution in multidose, USP Type I, amber glass vials.


NDC 66758-047-04:


600 mg/60 mL aqueous solution in multidose, USP Type I, amber glass vials.

Storage

Unopened vials of Carboplatin DBL Injection are stable to the date indicated on the package when stored at 20° to 25°C. Protect from light.

Carboplatin DBL Injection multidose vials maintain microbial, chemical, and physical stability for up to 14 days at 25°C following multiple needle entries.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Solutions for infusion should be discarded 8 hours after preparation.

Handling and Disposal

Caution should be exercised in handling and preparing Carboplatin DBL injection. Several guidelines on this subject have been published1-4.

To minimize the risk of dermal exposure, always wear impervious gloves when handling vials containing Carboplatin DBL injection. If Carboplatin DBL injection contacts the skin, immediately wash the skin thoroughly with soap and water. If Carboplatin DBL injection contacts mucous membranes, the membranes should be flushed immediately and thoroughly with water. More information is available in the references listed below.

REFERENCES

  • NIOSH Alert: Preventing occupational exposures to antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings, 2004. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-165.
  • OSHA Technical Manual, TED 1-0.15A, Section VI: Chapter 2. Controlling occupational exposure to hazardous drugs. OSHA, 1999. http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_vi/otm_vi_2.html
  • American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ASHP guidelines on handling hazardous drugs. Am J Health- Syst Pharm. 2006:63:1172-1193.
  • Polovich M, White JM, Kelleher LO, eds. 2005. Chemotherapy and biotherapy guidelines and recommendations for practice. 2nd ed. Pittsburgh, PA: Oncology Nursing Society.

For Sandoz Inc. Customer Service call, 1-800-525-8747.

Manufactured for:

SANDOZ

Princeton, NJ 08540

Manufactured by:

Ebewe

A-4866 Unterach, AUSTRIA

Rx only

December 2011

Patient Information

Rx only

Read this entire leaflet carefully. Keep it for future reference.

Carboplatin DBL Injection

This information will help you learn more about Carboplatin DBL. It cannot, however, cover all the possible warnings or side effects relating to Carboplatin DBL, and it does not list all of the benefits and risks of Carboplatin DBL. Your doctor should always be your first choice for detailed information about your medical condition and your treatment. Be sure to ask your doctor about any questions you may have.

What is cancer?

Under normal conditions, the cells in your body divide and grow in an orderly, controlled fashion. Cell division and growth are necessary for the human body to perform its functions and to repair itself. Cancer cells are different from normal cells because they are not able to control their own growth. The reasons for this abnormal growth are not yet fully understood.

A tumor is a mass of unhealthy cells that are dividing and growing fast and in an uncontrolled way. When a tumor invades surrounding healthy body tissue it is known as a malignant tumor. A malignant tumor can spread (metastasize) from its original location to other parts of the body.

What is Carboplatin DBL?

Carboplatin DBL is a medicine that is used to treat cancer of the ovaries. It acts by interfering with the division of rapidly multiplying cells, particularly cancer cells.

Who should not take Carboplatin DBL?

Treatment with Carboplatin DBL is not recommended if you:

  • are allergic to Carboplatin DBL or other platinum-containing products, or to mannitol;
  • have a weakened blood-forming system (bone marrow depression) or significant bleeding;
  • are pregnant, intend to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding a baby.

How is Carboplatin DBL used?

Only a professional experienced in the use of cancer drugs should give you this medication. Carboplatin DBL is given by dripping the medicine slowly and directly into a vein (intravenous infusion) for 15 minutes or longer. Your doctor will determine the dose of Carboplatin DBL for you based on your weight, height, and kidney function. Carboplatin DBL may be given alone or with other drugs. Treatment is usually repeated every four weeks for a number of cycles.

Before and after Carboplatin DBL treatment, your doctor may give you medication to lessen the nausea and vomiting associated with this cancer treatment.

What should you tell your doctor before starting treatment with Carboplatin DBL?

Discuss the benefits and risks of Carboplatin DBL with your doctor before beginning treatment.

Be sure to inform your doctor:

  • If you are allergic to Carboplatin DBL or other platinum-containing products, or to mannitol;
  • If you are or intend to become pregnant, since Carboplatin DBL may harm the developing fetus. It is important to use effective birth control while you are being treated with Carboplatin DBL;
  • If you are breast-feeding, since nursing infants may be exposed to Carboplatin DBL in this way;
  • If you are taking other medicines, including all prescription and non-prescription (over-the-counter) drugs, since Carboplatin DBL may affect the action of other medicines;
  • If you have any other medical problems, especially chicken pox (including recent exposure to adults or children with chicken pox), shingles, hearing problems, infection, or kidney disease, since treatment with Carboplatin DBL increases the risk and severity of these conditions.

What should I avoid while taking Carboplatin DBL?

If you are pregnant or think you might be pregnant, or if you are breast feeding, let your doctor know right away. Carboplatin DBL may harm your developing fetus or breast-feeding baby. If you are a woman of childbearing age, you should use birth control to avoid getting pregnant while you are taking Carboplatin DBL.

You should avoid contact with adults and children who have infections, and tell your doctor right away if you show signs of infection such as cough, fever, and/or chills. Also, while you are being treated with Carboplatin DBL or after you stop treatment, first check with your doctor before getting any immunizations (vaccinations). Avoid contact with adults or children who have received oral polio vaccine since they can pass the polio virus to you.

What are the possible side effects of Carboplatin DBL?

Carboplatin DBL may cause unwanted effects, particularly because Carboplatin DBL interferes with the growth of normal cells as well as cancer cells. For example, the occurrence of another cancer (secondary malignancy) has been reported in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy with multiple drugs. It is not always possible to tell whether such effects are caused by Carboplatin DBL, another drug you may be taking, or your illness. Because some of these effects may be serious, you will need close medical supervision during treatment with Carboplatin DBL.

The most serious side effects of Carboplatin DBL are:

  • bleeding and reduced blood cells, including reduced red blood cells (anemia) and platelets (needed for proper blood clotting), which may be severe enough to require blood transfusion. You should tell your doctor right away if you notice any unusual bruising or bleeding, including black tarry stools or blood in the urine.
  • infection - Carboplatin DBL can temporarily lower the number of white blood cells in your blood, increasing the risk of infection;
  • life-threatening allergic reaction - during and after treatment the doctor or nurse will observe you carefully for signs of allergic reaction;
  • kidney and liver problems;
  • loss of hearing or ringing in the ears;

Contact your doctor right away if you experience any of these effects, or notice effects that worry you or are troublesome.

Of the less serious side effects associated with Carboplatin DBL treatment, the most common are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, hair loss and numbness, tingling, burning, or pain in the hands or feet.

This medicine was prescribed for your particular condition. It must be given under close medical supervision by a doctor trained in the use of drugs for the treatment of cancer.

This summary does not include everything there is to know about Carboplatin DBL. Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in patient leaflets. If you have questions or concerns, or want more information about Carboplatin DBL, your physician and pharmacist have the complete prescribing information upon which this information is based. You may want to read it and discuss it with your doctor. Remember, no written summary can replace careful discussion with your doctor.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

782650–05

Carboplatin DBL pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Carboplatin DBL available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Carboplatin DBL destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Carboplatin DBL Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Carboplatin DBL pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."CARBOPLATIN INJECTION, SOLUTION [SANDOZ INC]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."CARBOPLATIN: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "carboplatin". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Carboplatin DBL?

Depending on the reaction of the Carboplatin DBL after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Carboplatin DBL not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Carboplatin DBL addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Carboplatin DBL, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Carboplatin DBL consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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