DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Calzem usesCalzem consists of Calcitriol, Calcium, Zinc.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Predialysis PatientsCalzem capsule is indicated in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism and resultant metabolic bone disease in patients with moderate to severe chronic renal failure (Ccr 15 to 55 mL/min) not yet on dialysis. In children, the creatinine clearance value must be corrected for a surface area of 1.73 square meters. A serum iPTH level of ≥ 100 pg/mL is strongly suggestive of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Dialysis PatientsCalzem (Calcitriol) capsule is indicated in the management of hypocalcemia and the resultant metabolic bone disease in patients undergoing chronic renal dialysis. In these patients, Calzem (Calcitriol) administration enhances calcium absorption, reduces serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and may reduce elevated parathyroid hormone levels and the histological manifestations of osteitis fibrosa cystica and defective mineralization.
Hypoparathyroidism PatientsCalzem (Calcitriol) capsule is also indicated in the management of hypocalcemia and its clinical manifestations in patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism, idiopathic hypoparathyroidism, and pseudohypoparathyroidism.
CONTRAINDICATIONSCalzem (Calcitriol) should not be given to patients with hypercalcemia or evidence of vitamin D toxicity. Use of Calzem (Calcitriol) in patients with known hypersensitivity to Calzem (Calcitriol) (or drugs of the same class) or any of the inactive ingredients is contraindicated.
WARNINGSOverdosage of any form of vitamin D is dangerous (see OVERDOSAGE ). Progressive hypercalcemia due to overdosage of vitamin D and its metabolites may be so severe as to require emergency attention. Chronic hypercalcemia can lead to generalized vascular calcification, nephrocalcinosis and other soft-tissue calcification. The serum calcium times phosphate (Ca x P) product should not be allowed to exceed 70 mg2/dL2. Radiographic evaluation of suspect anatomical regions may be useful in the early detection of this condition.
Calzem (Calcitriol) is the most potent metabolite of vitamin D available. The administration of Calzem (Calcitriol) to patients in excess of their daily requirements can cause hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and hyperphosphatemia. Therefore, pharmacologic doses of vitamin D and its derivatives should be withheld during Calzem (Calcitriol) treatment to avoid possible additive effects and hypercalcemia. If treatment is switched from ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) to Calzem (Calcitriol), it may take several months for the ergocalciferol level in the blood to return to the baseline value (see OVERDOSAGE ).
Calzem (Calcitriol) increases inorganic phosphate levels in serum. While this is desirable in patients with hypophosphatemia, caution is called for in patients with renal failure because of the danger of ectopic calcification. A non-aluminum phosphate-binding compound and a low-phosphate diet should be used to control serum phosphorus levels in patients undergoing dialysis.
Magnesium-containing preparations (eg, antacids) and Calzem (Calcitriol) should not be used concomitantly in patients on chronic renal dialysis because such use may lead to the development of hypermagnesemia.
Studies in dogs and rats given Calzem (Calcitriol) for up to 26 weeks have shown that small increases of Calzem (Calcitriol) above endogenous levels can lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism with the potential for calcification of many tissues in the body.
GeneralExcessive dosage of Calzem induces hypercalcemia and in some instances hypercalciuria; therefore, early in treatment during dosage adjustment, serum calcium should be determined twice weekly. In dialysis patients, a fall in serum alkaline phosphatase levels usually antedates the appearance of hypercalcemia and may be an indication of impending hypercalcemia. An abrupt increase in calcium intake as a result of changes in diet (eg, increased consumption of dairy products) or uncontrolled intake of calcium preparations may trigger hypercalcemia.
Should hypercalcemia develop, treatment with Calzem (Calcitriol) should be stopped immediately. During periods of hypercalcemia, serum calcium and phosphate levels must be determined daily. When normal levels have been attained, treatment with Calzem (Calcitriol) can be continued, at a daily dose 0.25 mcg lower than that previously used. An estimate of daily dietary calcium intake should be made and the intake adjusted when indicated. Calzem (Calcitriol) should be given cautiously to patients on digitalis, because hypercalcemia in such patients may precipitate cardiac arrhythmias.
Immobilized patients, eg, those who have undergone surgery, are particularly exposed to the risk of hypercalcemia.
In patients with normal renal function, chronic hypercalcemia may be associated with an increase in serum creatinine. While this is usually reversible, it is important in such patients to pay careful attention to those factors which may lead to hypercalcemia. Calzem (Calcitriol) therapy should always be started at the lowest possible dose and should not be increased without careful monitoring of the serum calcium. An estimate of daily dietary calcium intake should be made and the intake adjusted when indicated.
Patients with normal renal function taking Calzem (Calcitriol) should avoid dehydration. Adequate fluid intake should be maintained.
Information for PatientsThe patient and his or her caregivers should be informed about compliance with dosage instructions, adherence to instructions about diet and calcium supplementation, and avoidance of the use of unapproved nonprescription drugs. Patients and their caregivers should also be carefully informed about the symptoms of hypercalcemia (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ).
The effectiveness of Calzem (Calcitriol) therapy is predicated on the assumption that each patient is receiving an adequate daily intake of calcium. Patients are advised to have a dietary intake of calcium at a minimum of 600 mg daily. The U.S. RDA for calcium in adults is 800 mg to 1200 mg.
Laboratory TestsFor dialysis patients, serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase should be determined periodically. For hypoparathyroid patients, serum calcium, phosphorus, and 24-hour urinary calcium should be determined periodically. For predialysis patients, serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and intact PTH should be determined initially. Thereafter, serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine should be determined monthly for a 6-month period and then determined periodically. Intact PTH (iPTH) should be determined periodically every 3 to 4 months at the time of visits. During the titration period of treatment with Calzem (Calcitriol), serum calcium levels should be checked at least twice weekly (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
CholestyramineCholestyramine has been reported to reduce intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins; as such it may impair intestinal absorption of Calzem (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS: General ).
Phenytoin/PhenobarbitalThe coadministration of phenytoin or phenobarbital will not affect plasma concentrations of Calzem (Calcitriol), but may reduce endogenous plasma levels of 25(OH)D3 by accelerating metabolism. Since blood level of Calzem (Calcitriol) will be reduced, higher doses of Calzem (Calcitriol) may be necessary if these drugs are administered simultaneously.
ThiazidesThiazides are known to induce hypercalcemia by the reduction of calcium excretion in urine. Some reports have shown that the concomitant administration of thiazides with Calzem causes hypercalcemia. Therefore, precaution should be taken when coadministration is necessary.
DigitalisCalzem (Calcitriol) dosage must be determined with care in patients undergoing treatment with digitalis, as hypercalcemia in such patients may precipitate cardiac arrhythmias (see PRECAUTIONS: General ).
KetoconazoleKetoconazole may inhibit both synthetic and catabolic enzymes of Calzem. Reductions in serum endogenous Calzem (Calcitriol) concentrations have been observed following the administration of 300 mg/day to 1200 mg/day ketoconazole for a week to healthy men. However, in vivo drug interaction studies of ketoconazole with Calzem (Calcitriol) have not been investigated.
CorticosteroidsA relationship of functional antagonism exists between vitamin D analogues, which promote calcium absorption, and corticosteroids, which inhibit calcium absorption.
Phosphate-Binding AgentsSince Calzem also has an effect on phosphate transport in the intestine, kidneys and bones, the dosage of phosphate-binding agents must be adjusted in accordance with the serum phosphate concentration.
Vitamin DSince Calzem (Calcitriol) is the most potent active metabolite of vitamin D3, pharmacological doses of vitamin D and its derivatives should be withheld during treatment with Calzem (Calcitriol) to avoid possible additive effects and hypercalcemia (see WARNINGS ).
Calcium SupplementsUncontrolled intake of additional calcium-containing preparations should be avoided.
MagnesiumMagnesium-containing preparations (eg, antacids) may cause hypermagnesemia and should therefore not be taken during therapy with Calzem (Calcitriol) by patients on chronic renal dialysis.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis and Impairment of FertilityLong-term studies in animals have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Calzem. Calzem (Calcitriol) is not mutagenic in vitro in the Ames Test, nor is it genotoxic in vivo in the Mouse Micronucleus Test. No significant effects of Calzem (Calcitriol) on fertility and/or general reproductive performances were observed in a Segment I study in rats at doses of up to 0.3 mcg/kg (approximately 3 times the maximum recommended dose based on body surface area).
Pregnancy Category C. Calzem (Calcitriol) has been found to be teratogenic in rabbits when given at doses of 0.08 and 0.3 mcg/kg (approximately 2 and 6 times the maximum recommended dose based on mg/m2). All 15 fetuses in 3 litters at these doses showed external and skeletal abnormalities. However, none of the other 23 litters (156 fetuses) showed external and skeletal abnormalities compared with controls.
Teratogenicity studies in rats at doses up to 0.45 mcg/kg (approximately 5 times maximum recommended dose based on mg/m2) showed no evidence of teratogenic potential. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Calzem (Calcitriol) capsules should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
In the rabbit, dosages of 0.3 mcg/kg/day (approximately 6 times maximum recommended dose based on surface area) administered on days 7 to 18 of gestation resulted in 19% maternal mortality, a decrease in mean fetal body weight and a reduced number of newborn surviving to 24 hours. A study of perinatal and postnatal development in rats resulted in hypercalcemia in the offspring of dams given Calzem (Calcitriol) at doses of 0.08 or 0.3 mcg/kg/day (approximately 1 and 3 times the maximum recommended dose based on mg/m2), hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia in dams given Calzem (Calcitriol) at a dose of 0.08 or 0.3 mcg/kg/day, and increased serum urea nitrogen in dams given Calzem (Calcitriol) at a dose of 0.3 mcg/kg/day. In another study in rats, maternal weight gain was slightly reduced at a dose of 0.3 mcg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the maximum recommended dose based on mg/m2) administered on days 7 to 15 of gestation. The offspring of a woman administered 17 mcg/day to 36 mcg/day of Calzem (Calcitriol) (approximately 17 to 36 times the maximum recommended dose), during pregnancy manifested mild hypercalcemia in the first 2 days of life which returned to normal at day 3.
Nursing MothersCalzem from ingested Calzem (Calcitriol) may be excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from Calzem (Calcitriol) in nursing infants, a mother should not nurse while taking Calzem (Calcitriol).
Pediatric UseSafety and effectiveness of Calzem (Calcitriol) in pediatric patients undergoing dialysis have not been established. The safety and effectiveness of Calzem (Calcitriol) in pediatric predialysis patients is based on evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of Calzem (Calcitriol) in adults with predialysis chronic renal failure and additional supportive data from non- placebo controlled studies in pediatric patients. Dosing guidelines have not been established for pediatric patients under 1 year of age with hypoparathyroidism or for pediatric patients less than 6 years of age with pseudohypoparathyroidism (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Hypoparathyroidism ).
Oral doses of Calzem (Calcitriol) ranging from 10 to 55 ng/kg/day have been shown to improve calcium homeostasis and bone disease in pediatric patients with chronic renal failure for whom hemodialysis is not yet required (predialysis). Long-term Calzem (Calcitriol) therapy is well tolerated by pediatric patients. The most common safety issues are mild, transient episodes of hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increases in the serum calcium times phosphate (Ca x P) product which are managed effectively by dosage adjustment or temporary discontinuation of the vitamin D derivative.
Geriatric UseClinical studies of Calzem (Calcitriol) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
ADVERSE REACTIONSSince Calzem (Calcitriol) is believed to be the active hormone which exerts vitamin D activity in the body, adverse effects are, in general, similar to those encountered with excessive vitamin D intake, ie, hypercalcemia syndrome or calcium intoxication (depending on the severity and duration of hypercalcemia) (see WARNINGS ). Because of the short biological half-life of Calzem (Calcitriol), pharmacokinetic investigations have shown normalization of elevated serum calcium within a few days of treatment withdrawal, ie, much faster than in treatment with vitamin D3 preparations.
The early and late signs and symptoms of vitamin D intoxication associated with hypercalcemia include:
Early: weakness, headache, somnolence, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, constipation, muscle pain, bone pain, metallic taste, and anorexia, abdominal pain or stomach ache.
Late: polyuria, polydipsia, anorexia, weight loss, nocturia, conjunctivitis (calcific), pancreatitis, photophobia, rhinorrhea, pruritus, hyperthermia, decreased libido, elevated BUN, albuminuria, hypercholesterolemia, elevated SGOT (AST) and SGPT (ALT), ectopic calcification, nephrocalcinosis, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, dystrophy, sensory disturbances, dehydration, apathy, arrested growth, urinary tract infections, and, rarely, overt psychosis.
In clinical studies on hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism, hypercalcemia was noted on at least one occasion in about 1 in 3 patients and hypercalciuria in about 1 in 7 patients. Elevated serum creatinine levels were observed in about 1 in 6 patients (approximately one half of whom had normal levels at baseline).
In concurrent hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, soft-tissue calcification may occur; this can be seen radiographically (see WARNINGS ).
In patients with normal renal function, chronic hypercalcemia may be associated with an increase in serum creatinine (see PRECAUTIONS: General ).
Hypersensitivity reactions (pruritus, rash, urticaria, and very rarely severe erythematous skin disorders) may occur in susceptible individuals. One case of erythema multiforme and one case of allergic reaction (swelling of lips and hives all over the body) were confirmed by rechallenge.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Strides Pharma Inc. at 1-877-244-9825 or go to www.stridesshasun.com
OVERDOSAGEAdministration of Calzem to patients in excess of their daily requirements can cause hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and hyperphosphatemia. Since Calzem (Calcitriol) is a derivative of vitamin D, the signs and symptoms of overdose are the same as for an overdose of vitamin D (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ). High intake of calcium and phosphate concomitant with Calzem (Calcitriol) may lead to similar abnormalities. The serum calcium times phosphate (Ca x P) product should not be allowed to exceed 70 mg2/dL2. High levels of calcium in the dialysate bath may contribute to the hypercalcemia (see WARNINGS ).
Treatment of Hypercalcemia and Overdosage in Dialysis Patients and Hypoparathyroidism PatientsGeneral treatment of hypercalcemia (greater than 1 mg/dL above the upper limit of the normal range) consists of immediate discontinuation of Calzem (Calcitriol) therapy, institution of a low-calcium diet and withdrawal of calcium supplements. Serum calcium levels should be determined daily until normocalcemia ensues. Hypercalcemia frequently resolves in 2 to 7 days. When serum calcium levels have returned to within normal limits, Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule therapy may be reinstituted at a dose of 0.25 mcg/day less than prior therapy. Serum calcium levels should be obtained at least twice weekly after all dosage changes and subsequent dosage titration. In dialysis patients, persistent or markedly elevated serum calcium levels may be corrected by dialysis against a calcium-free dialysate.
Treatment of Hypercalcemia and Overdosage in Predialysis PatientsIf hypercalcemia ensues, adjust dosage to achieve normocalcemia by reducing Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule therapy from 0.5 mcg to 0.25 mcg daily. If the patient is receiving a therapy of 0.25 mcg daily, discontinue Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule until patient becomes normocalcemic. Calcium supplements should also be reduced or discontinued. Serum calcium levels should be determined 1 week after withdrawal of calcium supplements. If serum calcium levels have returned to normal, Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule therapy may be reinstituted at a dosage of 0.25 mcg/day if previous therapy was at a dosage of 0.5 mcg/day. If Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule therapy was previously administered at a dosage of 0.25 mcg/day, Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule therapy may be reinstituted at a dosage of 0.25 mcg every other day. If hypercalcemia is persistent at the reduced dosage, serum PTH should be measured. If serum PTH is normal, discontinue Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule therapy and monitor patient in 3 months' time.
Treatment of Hyperphosphatemia in Predialysis PatientsIf serum phosphorus levels exceed 5.0 mg/dL to 5.5 mg/dL, a calcium-containing phosphate-binding agent (ie, calcium carbonate or calcium acetate) should be taken with meals. Serum phosphorus levels should be determined as described earlier (see PRECAUTIONS: Laboratory Tests ). Aluminum-containing gels should be used with caution as phosphate-binding agents because of the risk of slow aluminum accumulation.
Treatment of Accidental Overdosage of Calzem capsulesThe treatment of acute accidental overdosage of Calzem (Calcitriol) should consist of general supportive measures. If drug ingestion is discovered within a relatively short time, induction of emesis or gastric lavage may be of benefit in preventing further absorption. If the drug has passed through the stomach, the administration of mineral oil may promote its fecal elimination. Serial serum electrolyte determinations (especially calcium), rate of urinary calcium excretion, and assessment of electrocardiographic abnormalities due to hypercalcemia should be obtained. Such monitoring is critical in patients receiving digitalis. Discontinuation of supplemental calcium and a low-calcium diet are also indicated in accidental overdosage. Due to the relatively short duration of the pharmacological action of Calzem (Calcitriol), further measures are probably unnecessary. Should, however, persistent and markedly elevated serum calcium levels occur, there are a variety of therapeutic alternatives which may be considered, depending on the patient's underlying condition. These include the use of drugs such as phosphates and corticosteroids as well as measures to induce an appropriate forced diuresis. The use of peritoneal dialysis against a calcium-free dialysate has also been reported.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATIONThe optimal daily dose of Calzem capsules must be carefully determined for each patient. Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule can be administered orally as a capsule (0.25 mcg or 0.50 mcg). Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule therapy should always be started at the lowest possible dose and should not be increased without careful monitoring of serum calcium.
The effectiveness of Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule therapy is predicated on the assumption that each patient is receiving an adequate but not excessive daily intake of calcium. Patients are advised to have a dietary intake of calcium at a minimum of 600 mg daily. The U.S. RDA for calcium in adults is 800 mg to 1200 mg. To ensure that each patient receives an adequate daily intake of calcium, the physician should either prescribe a calcium supplement or instruct the patient in proper dietary measures.
Because of improved calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, some patients on Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule may be maintained on a lower calcium intake. Patients who tend to develop hypercalcemia may require only low doses of calcium or no supplementation at all.
During the titration period of treatment with Calzem (Calcitriol), serum calcium levels should be checked at least twice weekly. When the optimal dosage of Calzem (Calcitriol) has been determined, serum calcium levels should be checked every month (or as given below for individual indications). Samples for serum calcium estimation should be taken without a tourniquet.
Dialysis PatientsThe recommended initial dose of Calzem (Calcitriol) capsule is 0.25 mcg/day. If a satisfactory response in the biochemical parameters and clinical manifestations of the disease state is not observed, dosage may be increased by 0.25 mcg/day at 4 to 8 week intervals. During this titration period, serum calcium levels should be obtained at least twice weekly, and if hypercalcemia is noted, the drug should be immediately discontinued until normocalcemia ensues (see PRECAUTIONS: General ). Phosphorus, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase should be determined periodically.
Patients with normal or only slightly reduced serum calcium levels may respond to Calzem (Calcitriol) capsules doses of 0.25 mcg every other day. Most patients undergoing hemodialysis respond to doses between 0.5 and 1 mcg/day.
Oral Calzem (Calcitriol) capsules may normalize plasma ionized calcium in some uremic patients, yet fail to suppress parathyroid hyperfunction. In these individuals with autonomous parathyroid hyperfunction, oral Calzem (Calcitriol) may be useful to maintain normocalcemia, but has not been shown to be adequate treatment for hyperparathyroidism.
HypoparathyroidismThe recommended initial dosage of Calzem capsules is 0.25 mcg/day given in the morning. If a satisfactory response in the biochemical parameters and clinical manifestations of the disease is not observed, the dose may be increased at 2- to 4-week intervals. During the dosage titration period, serum calcium levels should be obtained at least twice weekly and, if hypercalcemia is noted, Calzem (Calcitriol) capsules should be immediately discontinued until normocalcemia ensues (see PRECAUTIONS: General ). Careful consideration should also be given to lowering the dietary calcium intake. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and 24- hour urinary calcium should be determined periodically.
Most adult patients and pediatric patients age 6 years and older have responded to dosages in the range of 0.5 mcg to 2 mcg daily. Pediatric patients in the 1 to 5 year age group with hypoparathyroidism have usually been given 0.25 mcg to 0.75 mcg daily. The number of treated patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism less than 6 years of age is too small to make dosage recommendations.
Malabsorption is occasionally noted in patients with hypoparathyroidism; hence, larger doses of Calzem (Calcitriol) capsules may be needed.
Predialysis PatientsThe recommended initial dosage of Calzem (Calcitriol) capsules is 0.25 mcg/day in adults and pediatric patients 3 years of age and older. This dosage may be increased if necessary to 0.5 mcg/day.
For pediatric patients less than 3 years of age, the recommended initial dosage of Calzem (Calcitriol) is 10 to 15 ng/kg/day.
HOW SUPPLIEDCapsules: 0.25 mcg Calzem (Calcitriol) in soft gelatin, orange, oval capsules, imprinted with 673; bottles of 30 (64380-723-04), and bottles of 100 (64380-723-06).
Capsules: 0.5 mcg Calzem (Calcitriol) in soft gelatin, orange, oblong capsules, imprinted with 674; bottles of 100 (64380-724-06).
Calzem (Calcitriol) Capsules should be protected from light.
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°C F)
REFERENCES1. Jones CL, et al. Comparisons between oral and intraperitoneal 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy in children treated with peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol. 1994; 42:44-49.
Strides Shasun Limited
Bengaluru - 560076, India
Strides Pharma Inc.
East Brunswick, NJ 08816
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Calzem (Calcium) acetate is a phosphate binder indicated to reduce serum phosphorus in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD).
- Calcium acetate is a phosphate binder indicated for the reduction of serum phosphorus in patients with end stage renal disease. (1)
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended initial dose of Calzem (Calcium) acetate for the adult dialysis patient is 2 capsules with each meal. Increase the dose gradually to lower serum phosphorus levels to the target range, as long as hypercalcemia does not develop. Most patients require 3 to 4 capsules with each meal.
- Starting dose is 2 capsules with each meal. (2)
- Titrate the dose every 2 to 3 weeks until acceptable serum phosphorus level is reached. Most patients require 3 to 4 capsules with each meal. (2)
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Capsule: 667 mg Calzem (Calcium) acetate capsule.
- Capsule: 667 mg Calzem (Calcium) acetate capsule. (3)
Patients with hypercalcemia.
- Hypercalcemia. (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- Treat mild hypercalcemia by reducing or interrupting Calzem acetate and Vitamin D. Severe hypercalcemia may require hemodialysis and discontinuation of Calzem (Calcium) acetate. (5.1)
- Hypercalcemia may aggravate digitalis toxicity. (5.2)
Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia when treated with Calzem (Calcium), including Calzem (Calcium) acetate. Avoid the use of Calzem (Calcium) supplements, including Calzem (Calcium) based nonprescription antacids, concurrently with Calzem (Calcium) acetate.
An overdose of Calzem (Calcium) acetate may lead to progressive hypercalcemia, which may require emergency measures. Therefore, early in the treatment phase during the dosage adjustment period, monitor serum Calzem (Calcium) levels twice weekly. Should hypercalcemia develop, reduce the Calzem (Calcium) acetate dosage, or discontinue the treatment, depending on the severity of hypercalcemia
More severe hypercalcemia (Ca >12 mg/dL) is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor and coma. Severe hypercalcemia can be treated by acute hemodialysis and discontinuing Calzem (Calcium) acetate therapy.
Mild hypercalcemia (10.5 to 11.9 mg/dL) may be asymptomatic or manifest as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Mild hypercalcemia is usually controlled by reducing the Calzem (Calcium) acetate dose or temporarily discontinuing therapy. Decreasing or discontinuing Vitamin D therapy is recommended as well.
Chronic hypercalcemia may lead to vascular calcification and other soft-tissue calcification. Radiographic evaluation of suspected anatomical regions may be helpful in early detection of soft tissue calcification. The long term effect of Calzem (Calcium) acetate on the progression of vascular or soft tissue calcification has not been determined.
Hypercalcemia (>11 mg/dL) was reported in 16% of patients in a 3 month study of solid dose formulation of Calzem (Calcium) acetate; all cases resolved upon lowering the dose or discontinuing treatment.
Maintain the serum calcium-phosphorus (Ca x P) product below 55 mg2/dL2.
5.2 Concomitant Use with Medications
Hypercalcemia may aggravate digitalis toxicity.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
Hypercalcemia is discussed elsewhere [see Warnings and Precautions ].
- The most common (>10%) adverse reactions are hypercalcemia, nausea and vomiting. (6.1)
- In clinical studies, patients have occasionally experienced nausea during Calzem (Calcium) acetate therapy. (6)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp. at 1-800-962-8364 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch
6.1 Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In clinical studies, Calzem (Calcium) acetate has been generally well tolerated.
Calzem (Calcium) acetate was studied in a 3 month, open-label, non-randomized study of 98 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients and an alternate liquid formulation of Calzem (Calcium) acetate was studied in a two week double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with 69 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients. Adverse reactions (>2% on treatment) from these trials are presented in Table 1.
Mild hypercalcemia may be asymptomatic or manifest itself as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. More severe hypercalcemia is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor, and coma. Decreasing dialysate Calzem (Calcium) concentration could reduce the incidence and severity of Calzem (Calcium) acetate-induced hypercalcemia. Isolated cases pruritus have been reported, which may represent allergic reactions.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval of Calzem (Calcium) acetate: dizziness, edema, and weakness.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
The drug interaction of Calzem acetate is characterized by the potential of Calzem (Calcium) to bind to drugs with anionic functions (e.g., carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups). Calzem (Calcium) acetate may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones via this mechanism.
There are no empirical data on avoiding drug interactions between Calzem (Calcium) acetate and most concomitant drugs. When administering an oral medication with Calzem (Calcium) acetate where a reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have a clinically significant effect on its safety or efficacy, administer the drug one hour before or three hours after Calzem (Calcium) acetate. Monitor blood levels of the concomitant drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range. Patients taking anti-arrhythmic medications for the control of arrhythmias and anti-seizure medications for the control of seizure disorders were excluded from the clinical trials with all forms of Calzem (Calcium) acetate.
- Calcium acetate may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones. (7)
- When clinically significant drug interactions are expected, administer the drug at least one hour before or at least three hours after Calzem (Calcium) acetate or consider monitoring blood levels of the drug. (7)
In a study of 15 healthy subjects, a co-administered single dose of 4 Calzem (Calcium) acetate tablets, approximately 2.7g, decreased the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by approximately 50%.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C:
Calzem acetate capsules contains Calzem (Calcium) acetate. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Calzem (Calcium) acetate, and there are no adequate and well controlled studies of Calzem (Calcium) acetate use in pregnant women. Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia with Calzem (Calcium) acetate treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1 ) ]. Maintenance of normal serum Calzem (Calcium) levels is important for maternal and fetal well being. Hypercalcemia during pregnancy may increase the risk for maternal and neonatal complications such as stillbirth, preterm delivery, and neonatal hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. Calzem (Calcium) acetate treatment, as recommended, is not expected to harm a fetus if maternal Calzem (Calcium) levels are properly monitored during and following treatment.
8.2 Labor and Delivery
The effects of Calzem (Calcium) acetate on labor and delivery are unknown.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
Calzem Acetate Capsules contains Calzem (Calcium) acetate and is excreted in human milk. Human milk feeding by a mother receiving Calzem (Calcium) acetate is not expected to harm an infant, provided maternal serum Calzem (Calcium) levels are appropriately monitored.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of Calzem (Calcium) acetate did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Administration of Calzem (Calcium) acetate in excess of the appropriate daily dosage may result in hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Calzem (Calcium) acetate acts as a phosphate binder. Its chemical name is Calzem (Calcium) acetate. Its molecular formula is C4H6CaO4, and its molecular weight is 158.17. Its structural formula is:
Each white opaque/blue opaque capsule contains 667 mg of Calzem (Calcium) acetate USP (anhydrous; Ca(CH3COO)2; MW=158.17 grams) equal to 169 mg (8.45 mEq) Calzem (Calcium), polyethylene glycol 8000 and magnesium stearate. Each capsule shell contains: black monogramming ink, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Red #3, gelatin and titanium dioxide. The black monogramming ink contains: ammonium hydroxide, iron oxide black, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol and shellac glaze.
Calzem (Calcium) Acetate Capsules are administered orally for the control of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal failure.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Patients with ESRD retain phosphorus and can develop hyperphosphatemia. High serum phosphorus can precipitate serum Calzem resulting in ectopic calcification. Hyperphosphatemia also plays a role in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with ESRD.
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Calzem (Calcium) acetate, when taken with meals, combines with dietary phosphate to form an insoluble Calzem (Calcium) phosphate complex, which is excreted in the feces, resulting in decreased serum phosphorus concentration.
Orally administered Calzem (Calcium) acetate from pharmaceutical dosage forms is systemically absorbed up to approximately 40% under fasting conditions and up to approximately 30% under nonfasting conditions. This range represents data from both healthy subjects and renal dialysis patients under various conditions.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or fertility studies have been conducted with Calzem (Calcium) acetate.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
Effectiveness of Calzem (Calcium) acetate in decreasing serum phosphorus has been demonstrated in two studies of the Calzem (Calcium) acetate solid oral dosage form.
Ninety-one patients with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing hemodialysis and were hyperphosphatemic (serum phosphorus >5.5 mg/dL) following a 1 week phosphate binder washout period contributed efficacy data to an open-label, non-randomized study.
The patients received Calzem (Calcium) acetate 667 mg tablets at each meal for a period of 12 weeks. The initial starting dose was 2 tablets per meal for 3 meals a day, and the dose was adjusted as necessary to control serum phosphorus levels. The average final dose after 12 weeks of treatment was 3.4 tablets per meal. Although there was a decrease in serum phosphorus, in the absence of a control group the true magnitude of effect is uncertain.
The data presented in Table 2 demonstrate the efficacy of Calzem (Calcium) acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease patients. The effects on serum Calzem (Calcium) levels are also presented.
There was a 30% decrease in serum phosphorus levels during the 12 week study period (p<0.01). Two-thirds of the decline occurred in the first month of the study. Serum Calzem (Calcium) increased 9% during the study mostly in the first month of the study.
Treatment with the phosphate binder was discontinued for patients from the open-label study, and those patients whose serum phosphorus exceeded 5.5 mg/dL were eligible for entry into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Patients were randomized to receive Calzem (Calcium) acetate or placebo, and each continued to receive the same number of tablets as had been individually established during the previous study. Following 2 weeks of treatment, patients switched to the alternative therapy for an additional 2 weeks.
The phosphate binding effect of Calzem (Calcium) acetate is shown in the Table 3.
Overall, 2 weeks of treatment with Calzem (Calcium) acetate statistically significantly (p<0.01) decreased serum phosphorus by a mean of 19% and increased serum Calzem (Calcium) by a statistically significant (p<0.01) but clinically unimportant mean of 7%.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Calzem (Calcium) Acetate Capsules
667 mg capsule is supplied as a white opaque/blue opaque capsule, imprinted with “54 215” on the cap and body.
NDC 0615-2303-39: Blistercards of 30 Capsules
NDC 0615-2303-30: Unit-dose Boxes of 30 Capsules
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Inform patients to take Calzem (Calcium) acetate capsules with meals, adhere to their prescribed diets, and avoid the use of Calzem (Calcium) supplements including nonprescription antacids. Inform the patients about the symptoms of hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1) ].
Advise patients who are taking an oral medication where reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have clinically significant effect on its safety or efficacy to take the drug one hour before or three hours after Calzem (Calcium) acetate capsules.
Distr. by: West-Ward
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Revised April 2016
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Calzem (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for TPN. Administration helps to maintain Calzem (Zinc) serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores, and subsequent deficiency symptoms.
Direct intramuscular or intravenous injection of Calzem (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is contraindicated as the acidic pH of the solution (2) may cause considerable tissue irritation.
Severe kidney disease may make it necessary to reduce or omit chromium and Calzem (Zinc) doses because these elements are primarily eliminated in the urine.
WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.
Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.
Do not use unless the solution is clear and the seal is intact.
Zinc 1 mg/mL should only be used in conjunction with a pharmacy directed admixture program using aseptic technique in a laminar flow environment; it should be used promptly and in a single operation without any repeated penetrations. Solution contains no preservatives; discard unused portion immediately after admixture procedure is completed.
Zinc should not be given undiluted by direct injection into a peripheral vein because of the likelihood of infusion phlebitis and the potential for increased excretory loss of Calzem (Zinc) from a bolus injection. Administration of Calzem (Zinc) in the absence of copper may cause a decrease in serum copper levels.
Periodic determinations of serum copper as well as Calzem (Zinc) are suggested as a guideline for subsequent Calzem (Zinc) administration.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility
Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Calzem 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) have not been performed, nor have studies been done to assess mutagenesis or impairment of fertility.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Calzem (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is administered to a nursing woman.
Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Calzem chloride. It is also not known whether Calzem (Zinc) chloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Calzem (Zinc) chloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
An evaluation of current literature revealed no clinical experience identifying differences in response between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
Single intravenous doses of 1 to 2 mg zinc/kg body weight have been given to adult leukemic patients without toxic manifestations. However, acute toxicity was reported in an adult when 10 mg Calzem (Zinc) was infused over a period of one hour on each of four consecutive days. Profuse sweating, decreased level of consciousness, blurred vision, tachycardia (140/min), and marked hypothermia (94.2° F) on the fourth day were accompanied by a serum Calzem (Zinc) concentration of 207 mcg/dl. Symptoms abated within three hours.
Hyperamylasemia may be a sign of impending Calzem (Zinc) overdosage; patients receiving an inadvertent overdose (25 mg zinc/liter of TPN solution, equivalent to 50 to 70 mg zinc/day) developed hyperamylasemia (557 to 1850 Klein units; normal: 130 to 310).
Death resulted from an overdosage in which 1683 mg Calzem (Zinc) was delivered intravenously over the course of 60 hours to a 72 year old patient.
Symptoms of Calzem (Zinc) toxicity included hypotension (80/40 mm Hg), pulmonary edema, diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice, and oliguria, with a serum Calzem (Zinc) level of 4184 mcg/dl.
Calcium supplements may confer a protective effect against Calzem (Zinc) toxicity.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Calzem (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) contains 1 mg zinc/mL and is administered intravenously only after dilution. The additive should be diluted prior to administration in a volume of fluid not less than 100 mL. For the metabolically stable adult receiving TPN, the suggested intravenous dosage is 2.5 to 4 mg zinc/day (2.5 to 4 mL/day). An additional 2 mg zinc/day (2 mL/day) is suggested for acute catabolic states. For the stable adult with fluid loss from the small bowel, an additional 12.2 mg zinc/liter of small bowel fluid lost (12.2 mL/liter of small bowel fluid lost), or an additional 17.1 mg zinc/kg of stool or ileostomy output (17.1 mL/kg of stool or ileostomy output) is recommended. Frequent monitoring of Calzem (Zinc) blood levels is suggested for patients receiving more than the usual maintenance dosage level of Calzem (Zinc).
For full term infants and children up to 5 years of age, 100 mcg zinc/kg/day (0.1 mL/kg/day) is recommended. For premature infants (birth weight less than 1500 g) up to 3 kg in body weight, 300 mcg zinc/kg/day (0.3 mL/kg/day) is suggested.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. See PRECAUTIONS.
Calzem (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is supplied in 10 mL Plastic Vials (List No. 4090).
Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F).
Revised: October, 2004
© Hospira 2004 EN-0488 Printed in USA
HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USA
10 mL Vial
Calzem (Zinc) Chloride Inj., USP
FOR I.V. USE ONLY AFTER DILUTION.
HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USA
Calzem pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Calzem available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Calzem destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Calzem Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Calzem pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Calzem?
Depending on the reaction of the Calzem after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Calzem not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Calzem addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Calzem, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Calzem consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Visitor reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported side effectsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported price estimatesNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported frequency of useNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported dosesNo survey data has been collected yet
One visitor reported time for resultsWhat is the time duration Calzem drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms?
Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sdrugs.com website users needed 5 days to notice the result from using Calzem drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Calzem need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
Two visitors reported administrationThe drugs are administered in various routes, like oral or injection form. They are administered before food or after food. How are you taking Calzem drug, before food or after food?
Click here to find out how other users of our website are taking it. For any doubts or queries on how and when the medicine is administered, contact your health care provider immediately.
One visitor reported age
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology