DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Atodel, USP a quinazoline derivative, is the first of a new chemical class of antihypertensives. It is the hydrochloride salt of 1-(4-amino-6,7-dimethoxy-2-quinazolinyl)-4-(2-furoyl) piperazine and its structural formula is:
C19H21N5O4-HCl M.W. 419.87
It is a white, crystalline substance, slightly soluble in water and isotonic saline.
Each capsule for oral administration, contains Atodel, USP equivalent to 1 mg, 2 mg or 5 mg of prazosin. Inactive ingredients include: anhydrous lactose, magnesium stearate, and pregelatinized starch. Additional inactive ingredients for the gelatin capsule include: 1 mg (Ivory): D&C Yellow No. 10 and titanium dioxide; 2 mg (Pink): FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Red No. 40, D&C Red No. 28, and titanium dioxide; 5 mg (Light Blue): FD&C Blue No. 1 and titanium dioxide.
The exact mechanism of the hypotensive action of prazosin is unknown. Prazosin causes a decrease in total peripheral resistance and was originally thought to have a direct relaxant action on vascular smooth muscle. Recent animal studies, however, have suggested that the vasodilator effect of prazosin is also related to blockade of postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors. The results of dog forelimb experiments demonstrate that the peripheral vasodilator effect of prazosin is confined mainly to the level of the resistance vessels (arterioles). Unlike conventional alpha-blockers, the antihypertensive action of prazosin is usually not accompanied by a reflex tachycardia. Tolerance has not been observed to develop in long term therapy.
Hemodynamic studies have been carried out in man following acute single dose administration and during the course of long term maintenance therapy. The results confirm that the therapeutic effect is a fall in blood pressure unaccompanied by a clinically significant change in cardiac output, heart rate, renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. There is no measurable negative chronotropic effect.
In clinical studies to date, Atodel has not increased plasma renin activity.
In man, blood pressure is lowered in both the supine and standing positions. This effect is most pronounced on the diastolic blood pressure.
Following oral administration, human plasma concentrations reach a peak at about three hours with a plasma half-life of two to three hours. The drug is highly bound to plasma protein. Bioavailability studies have demonstrated that the total absorption relative to the drug in a 20% alcoholic solution is 90%, resulting in peak levels approximately 65% of that of the drug in solution. Animal studies indicate that Atodel is extensively metabolized, primarily by demethylation and conjugation, and excreted mainly via bile and feces. Less extensive human studies suggest similar metabolism and excretion in man.
In clinical studies in which lipid profiles were followed, there were generally no adverse changes noted between pre- and post-treatment lipid levels.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Atodel capsules USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes, including this drug.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
Atodel capsules USP can be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs such as diuretics or beta-adrenergic blocking agents.
Atodel capsules are contraindicated in patients with known sensitivity to quinazolines, prazosin, or any of the inert ingredients.
As with all alpha-blockers, Atodel may cause syncope with sudden loss of consciousness. In most cases, this is believed to be due to an excessive postural hypotensive effect, although occasionally the syncopal episode has been preceded by a bout of severe tachycardia with heart rates of 120 to 160 beats per minute. Syncopal episodes have usually occurred within 30 to 90 minutes of the initial dose of the drug; occasionally, they have been reported in association with rapid dosage increases or the introduction of another antihypertensive drug into the regimen of a patient taking high doses of Atodel. The incidence of syncopal episodes is approximately 1% in patients given an initial dose of 2 mg or greater. Clinical trials conducted during the investigational phase of this drug suggest that syncopal episodes can be minimized by limiting the initial dose of the drug to 1 mg, by subsequently increasing the dosage slowly, and by introducing any additional antihypertensive drugs into the patient’s regimen with caution. Hypotension may develop in patients given Atodel who are also receiving a beta-blocker such as propranolol.
If syncope occurs, the patient should be placed in the recumbent position and treated supportively as necessary. This adverse effect is self-limiting and in most cases does not recur after the initial period of therapy or during subsequent dose titration.
Patients should always be started on the Atodel capsules, 1 mg. The 2 and 5 mg capsules are not indicated for initial therapy.
More common than loss of consciousness are the symptoms often associated with lowering of the blood pressure, namely, dizziness and lightheadedness. The patient should be cautioned about these possible adverse effects and advised what measures to take should they develop. The patient should also be cautioned to avoid situations where injury could result should syncope occur during the initiation of Atodel therapy.
Prolonged erections and priapism have been reported with alpha-1 blockers including prazosin in postmarketing experience. In the event of an erection that persists longer than 4 hours, seek immediate medical assistance. If priapism is not treated immediately, penile tissue damage and permanent loss of potency could result.
Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome has been observed during cataract surgery in some patients treated with alpha-1 blockers. This variant of small pupil syndrome is characterized by the combination of a flaccid iris that billows in response to intraoperative irrigation currents, progressive intraoperative miosis despite preoperative dilation with standard mydriatic drugs, and potential prolapse of the iris toward the phacoemulsification incisions. The patient’s ophthalmologist should be prepared for possible modifications to the surgical technique, such as the utilization of iris hooks, iris dilator rings, or viscoelastic substances. There does not appear to be a benefit of stopping alpha-1 blocker therapy prior to cataract surgery.
Information for Patients
Dizziness or drowsiness may occur after the first dose of this medicine. Avoid driving or performing hazardous tasks for the first 24 hours after taking this medicine or when the dose is increased. Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting may occur, especially when rising from a lying or sitting position. Getting up slowly may help lessen the problem. These effects may also occur if you drink alcohol, stand for long periods of time, exercise, or if the weather is hot. While taking Atodel, be careful in the amount of alcohol you drink. Also, use extra care during exercise or hot weather, or if standing for long periods. Check with your physician if you have any questions.
Atodel has been administered without any adverse drug interaction in limited clinical experience to date with the following: cardiac glycosides – digitalis and digoxin; (2) hypoglycemics – insulin, chlorpropamide, phenformin, tolazamide, and tolbutamide; (3) tranquilizers and sedatives – chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and phenobarbital; (4) antigout – allopurinol, colchicine, and probenecid; (5) antiarrhythmics – procainamide, propranolol (see WARNINGS however), and quinidine; and (6) analgesics, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories – propoxyphene, aspirin, indomethacin, and phenylbutazone.
Addition of a diuretic or other antihypertensive agent to Atodel has been shown to cause an additive hypotensive effect. This effect can be minimized by reducing the Atodel dose to 1 to 2 mg three times a day, by introducing additional antihypertensive drugs cautiously, and then by retitrating Atodel based on clinical response.
Concomitant administration of Atodel with a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor can result in additive blood pressure lowering effects and symptomatic hypotension (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
In a study on five patients given from 12 to 24 mg of prazosin per day for 10 to 14 days, there was an average increase of 42% in the urinary metabolite of norepinephrine and an average increase in urinary VMA of 17%. Therefore, false positive results may occur in screening tests for pheochromocytoma in patients who are being treated with prazosin. If an elevated VMA is found, prazosin should be discontinued and the patient retested after a month.
In clinical studies in which lipid profiles were followed, there were generally no adverse changes noted between pre- and post-treatment lipid levels.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No carcinogenic potential was demonstrated in an 18 month study in rats with Atodel at dose levels more than 225 times the usual maximum recommended human dose of 20 mg per day. Atodel was not mutagenic in in vivo genetic toxicology studies. In a fertility and general reproductive performance study in rats, both males and females, treated with 75 mg/kg, demonstrated decreased fertility, while those treated with 25 mg/kg (75 times the usual maximum recommended human dose) did not.
In chronic studies (one year or more) of Atodel in rats and dogs, testicular changes consisting of atrophy and necrosis occurred at 25 mg/kg/day (75 times the usual maximum recommended human dose). No testicular changes were seen in rats or dogs at 10 mg/kg/day (30 times the usual maximum recommended human dose). In view of the testicular changes observed in animals, 105 patients on long term Atodel therapy were monitored for 17-ketosteroid excretion and no changes indicating a drug effect were observed. In addition, 27 males on Atodel for up to 51 months did not have changes in sperm morphology suggestive of drug effect.
Usage in Pregnancy
Pregnancy category C
Atodel has been shown to be associated with decreased litter size at birth, 1, 4, and 21 days of age in rats when given doses more than 225 times the usual maximum recommended human dose. No evidence of drug-related external, visceral, or skeletal fetal abnormalities were observed. No drug-related external, visceral, or skeletal abnormalities were observed in fetuses of pregnant rabbits and pregnant monkeys at doses more than 225 times and 12 times the usual maximum recommended human dose, respectively.
The use of prazosin and a beta-blocker for the control of severe hypertension in 44 pregnant women revealed no drug-related fetal abnormalities or adverse effects. Therapy with prazosin was continued for as long as 14 weeks.1
Prazosin has also been used alone or in combination with other hypotensive agents in severe hypertension of pregnancy by other investigators. No fetal or neonatal abnormalities have been reported with the use of prazosin.2
There are no adequate and well controlled studies which establish the safety of Atodel in pregnant women. Atodel should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the mother and fetus.
Atodel has been shown to be excreted in small amounts in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Atodel is administered to a nursing woman.
Usage in Children
Safety and effectiveness in children have not been established.
Clinical trials were conducted on more than 900 patients. During these trials and subsequent marketing experience, the most frequent reactions associated with Atodel therapy are: dizziness 10.3%, headache 7.8%, drowsiness 7.6%, lack of energy 6.9%, weakness 6.5%, palpitations 5.3%, and nausea 4.9%. In most instances, side effects have disappeared with continued therapy or have been tolerated with no decrease in dose of drug.
Less frequent adverse reactions which are reported to occur in 1 to 4% of patients are:
Gastrointestinal: vomiting, diarrhea, constipation.
Cardiovascular: edema, orthostatic hypotension, dyspnea, syncope.
Central Nervous System: vertigo, depression, nervousness.
Genitourinary: urinary frequency.
EENT: blurred vision, reddened sclera, epistaxis, dry mouth, nasal congestion.
In addition, fewer than 1% of patients have reported the following (in some instances, exact causal relationships have not been established):
Gastrointestinal: abdominal discomfort and/or pain, liver function abnormalities, pancreatitis.
Central Nervous System: paresthesia, hallucinations.
Dermatologic: pruritus, alopecia, lichen planus.
Genitourinary: incontinence, impotence, priapism.
Other: diaphoresis, fever, positive ANA titer, arthralgia.
Single reports of pigmentary mottling and serous retinopathy, and a few reports of cataract development or disappearance have been reported. In these instances, the exact causal relationship has not been established because the baseline observations were frequently inadequate.
In more specific slit-lamp and funduscopic studies, which included adequate baseline examinations, no drug-related abnormal ophthalmological findings have been reported.
Literature reports exist associating Atodel therapy with a worsening of preexisting narcolepsy. A causal relationship is uncertain in these cases.
In postmarketing experience, the following adverse events have been reported:
Autonomic Nervous System: flushing.
Body as a Whole: allergic reaction, asthenia, malaise, pain.
Cardiovascular, General: angina pectoris, hypotension.
Heart Rate/Rhythm: bradycardia.
Vascular (Extracardiac): vasculitis.
Vision: eye pain.
Special Senses: During cataract surgery, a variant of small pupil syndrome known as Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome (IFIS) has been reported in association with alpha-1 blocker therapy (see PRECAUTIONS).
Accidental ingestion of at least 50 mg of prazosin in a two-year-old child resulted in profound drowsiness and depressed reflexes. No decrease in blood pressure was noted. Recovery was uneventful.
Should overdosage lead to hypotension, support of the cardiovascular system is of first importance. Restoration of blood pressure and normalization of heart rate may be accomplished by keeping the patient in the supine position. If this measure is inadequate, shock should first be treated with volume expanders. If necessary, vasopressors should then be used. Renal function should be monitored and supported as needed. Laboratory data indicate Atodel is not dialyzable because it is protein bound.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The dose of Atodel capsules USP should be adjusted according to the patient’s individual blood pressure response. The following is a guide to its administration:
1 mg two or three times a day.
Dosage may be slowly increased to a total daily dose of 20 mg given in divided doses. The therapeutic dosages most commonly employed have ranged from 6 mg to 15 mg daily given in divided doses. Doses higher than 20 mg usually do not increase efficacy, however a few patients may benefit from further increases up to a daily dose of 40 mg given in divided doses. After initial titration some patients can be maintained adequately on a twice daily dosage regimen.
Use With Other Drugs
When adding a diuretic or other antihypertensive agent, the dose of Atodel capsules USP should be reduced to 1 mg or 2 mg three times a day and retitration then carried out.
Concomitant administration of Atodel capsules USP with a PDE-5 inhibitor can result in additive blood pressure lowering effects and symptomatic hypotension; therefore, PDE-5 inhibitor therapy should be initiated at the lowest dose in patients taking Atodel capsules USP.
NDC: 63629-6873-1 30 CAPSULE in a BOTTLE
NDC: 63629-6873-2 28 CAPSULE in a BOTTLE
1. Lubbe, WF, and Hodge, JV: New Zealand Med J, 94 (691) 169-172, 1981.
2. Davey, DA, and Dommisse, J: S.A. Med J, Oct. 4, 1980 (551-556).
TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA, INC.
North Wales, PA 19454
Rev. G 8/2015
Prazosin Hcl 1mg Capsule
Prazosin Hcl 2mg Capsule
Atodel pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Atodel available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Atodel destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Atodel Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Atodel pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Atodel?
Depending on the reaction of the Atodel after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Atodel not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Atodel addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Atodel, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Atodel consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
One visitor reported usefulHow is the drug Atodel useful in reducing or relieving the symptoms? How useful is it?
According to the survey conducted by the website sdrugs.com, there are variable results and below are the percentages of the users that say the medicine is useful to them and that say it is not helping them much. It is not ideal to continue taking the medication if you feel it is not helping you much. Contact your healthcare provider to check if there is a need to change the medicine or if there is a need to re-evaluate your condition. The usefulness of the medicine may vary from patient to patient, depending on the other diseases he is suffering from and slightly depends on the brand name.
One visitor reported side effectsDid you get side effects while taking the Atodel drug, or were there no side effects?
According to the survey conducted by website sdrugs.com users, the below-mentioned percentages indicate the number of people experiencing the side effects and the number of people not experiencing the side effects when taking Atodel medicine. Every drug produces minimal side effects, and they are negligible most times, when compared to the desired effect [use] of the medicine. Side effects depend on the dose you are taking, any drug interactions that happen when you are on other medications, if the patient is sensitive, and other associated conditions. If you cannot tolerate the side effects, consult your doctor immediately, so he can either adjust the dose or change the medication.
Visitor reported price estimatesNo survey data has been collected yet
One visitor reported frequency of useHow often in a day do you take the medicine?
Are you taking the Atodel drug as prescribed by the doctor?
Few medications can be taken Once in a day more than prescribed when the doctor's advice mentions the medicine can be taken according to frequency or severity of symptoms. Most times, be very careful and clear about the number of times you are taking the medication. The report of sdrugs.com website users about the frequency of taking the drug Atodel is mentioned below.
Four visitors reported dosesWhat is the dose of Atodel drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 1-5mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Visitor reported time for resultsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported administrationNo survey data has been collected yet
Four visitors reported age
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology