DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Atenolol is a cardioselective beta1-blocker without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. This medication has antihypertensive, antianginal and antiarrhythmic action. Atenolol reduces the stimulatory effect on the heart sympathetic innervation and circulating catecholamines.
The hypotensive effect of this drug is associated with a decrease in minute volume of blood, decreased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, sensitivity of baroreceptors of the aortic arch (not going to enhance their activity in response to decreased blood pressure) and the effect on the CNS; manifested lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, decreasing stroke volume and cardiac output. In the medium therapeutic doses it has no effect on the tone of peripheral arteries.
The antianginal effect of Atenolol is associated with decreased myocardial oxygen demand by decreasing heart rate (lengthening of diastole and improved myocardial perfusion) and contractility, as well as reduced sensitivity to the effects of myocardial sympathetic innervation. Decrease in heart rate occurs at rest and during exercise.
The antiarrhythmic effect of this medicine is due to the elimination of arrhythmogenic factors (tachycardia, increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, increase of cAMP, hypertension), decrease in the rate of spontaneous excitation of the sinus and ectopic pacemakers and slowing of AV conduction.
The hypotensive effect lasts 24 hours, with regular admission is stabilized by the end of 2 weeks of treatment. The negative chronotropic effect is manifested by 1 h after administration, reaches a maximum after in 2-4 hours and lasts up to 24 hours.
After oral administration the absorption of Atenolol from the gastrointestinal tract is 50-60%, its bioavailability is 40-50%. This drug is practically not metabolized in the body; poorly penetrates the BBB. The plasma protein binding is 6-16%. T1/2 is 6-9 h. Atenolol is primarily excreted by the kidneys in unchanged form. Renal dysfunction accompanied mainly to the increase of T1/2 and cumulation. This medication is excreted during hemodialysis. For elderly patients T1/2 of Atenolol is increased.
Why is Atenolol prescribed?
Hypertension, hypertensive crisis, mitral valve prolapse, cardiac hyperkinetic syndrome of functional origin, neurocirculatory dystonia of hypertensive type.
Treatment: coronary artery disease, angina pectoris.
Treatment and prevention of: myocardial infarction (acute phase in stable hemodynamic parameters, secondary prevention).
Arrhythmias (including at the general anesthesia, congenital syndrome prolongation QT, myocardial infarction without signs of congestive heart failure, thyrotoxicosis), sinus tachycardia, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, supraventricular and ventricular premature beats, supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia, atrial tachyarrhythmia, atrial flutter.
Essential and senile tremor, agitation and tremors withdrawal syndrome.
In the combined therapy: hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, pheochromocytoma (only in combination with alpha-blockers), hyperthyroidism; migraine (prophylaxis).
Dosage and administration
The dosing regimen of Atenolol is set individually. The usual dose for adults for oral administration at the beginning of treatment is 25-50 mg 1 time / day. If necessary the dose is increased gradually. If impaired renal function in patients with CC 15-35 ml / min - 50 mg / day; with CC less than 15 ml / min - 50 mg every other day.
The maximum dose for adults for oral administration is 200 mg / day in 1 or 2 doses.
Atenolol side effects, adverse reactions
Cardiovascular system: in some cases - bradycardia, hypotension, AV-conduction disturbances, symptoms of heart failure.
Digestive system: at the beginning of therapy it is possible nausea, constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth.
CNS and peripheral nervous system: at the beginning of therapy may be fatigue, dizziness, depression, mild headache, sleep disturbances, coldness and paresthesia in extremities, reduced reactivity of the patient, reducing the secretion of tear fluid, conjunctivitis.
Endocrine system: reduced potency, hypoglycemic state in patients with diabetes.
Respiratory system: in predisposed patients - symptoms of bronchial obstruction.
Allergic reactions: itching.
Other: increased sweating, redness of the skin.
AV-block II and III degree, sinoatrial block, SSS, bradycardia, hypotension (in case of myocardial infarction, systolic blood pressure less than 100 mm Hg), cardiogenic shock, congestive heart failure IIB-III stages, acute heart failure, Prinzmetal's angina, lactation, concomitant use of MAO inhibitors, hypersensitivity to Atenolol.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Atenolol crosses the placental barrier, so use during pregnancy is only possible if the intended benefits to the mother justifies potential risk to the fetus.
Atenolol is excreted in breast milk, so if you need to use during lactation is recommended to stop breastfeeding.
Category effects on the fetus by FDA - D.
With caution use this medication in hepatic failure.
Atenolol should be used with caution in diabetes, COPD, metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, allergic reactions, a history of chronic heart failure (compensated), obliterating peripheral arterial disease (intermittent claudication, Raynaud's syndrome), pheochromocytoma, liver failure, chronic renal insufficiency, myasthenia gravis, hyperthyroidism, depression (including in history), psoriasis, pregnancy, elderly patients, in pediatrics (the efficacy and safety are not defined).
While taking Atenolol it can decrease tear fluid production, which is important for patients who use contact lenses.
Cancellation of this drug after prolonged treatment should be carried out gradually under medical supervision.
Upon the termination of the combined use of Atenolol and clonidine, clonidine treatment continued for several days after discontinuation of Atenolol, otherwise you may experience severe arterial hypertension.
When the need for inhaled anesthesia in patients receiving Atenolol Meliapharm, a few days before anesthesia to stop taking Atenolol or find a medication for anesthesia with minimal negative inotropic effects.
Patients whose work requires high concentration, the question of outpatient use of Atenolol should be addressed only after an assessment of individual response.
Atenolol drug interactions
Antiarrhythmic and anesthetic facilities increase cardiodepressive action of this drug (increased risk of developing bradycardia, arrhythmia, hypotension, heart failure).
Reserpine, methyldopa, clonidine, guanfacine, cardiac glycosides potentiate the negative chrono-, drome- and bathmotropic effect, insulin and other antidiabetic funds - hypoglycemia.
NSAIDs, estrogens, sympathomimetics, xanthines weaken the anti-hypertensive effect, absorption; sympatholytic, nitroglycerin, hydralazine, and other antihypertensive drugs increase it; antacids slow down this medication absorption.
Cimetidine inhibits the metabolism of Atenolol Meliapharm.
This medication prolongs the action of anti-depolarizing muscle relaxant, anticoagulant effect of coumarins.
Three / tetracyclic antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedatives, hypnotics and alcohol potentiate CNS depression.
Atenolol is incompatible with MAO inhibitors.
Atenolol in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: bradycardia, AV block II-III degree, heart failure, respiratory failure, hypotension, bronchospasm, hypoglycemia.
Treatment: gastric lavage and the appointment of adsorbing medications; Symptomatic treatment: atropine, isoprenaline, orciprenaline, cardiac glycosides or glucagon, diuretics, pressor agents (dopamine, dobutamine or norepinephrine), selective beta-adrenoceptor agonists, IV glucose solution, installation of an artificial pacemaker. Perhaps dialysis.
Atenolol pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Atenolol available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Atenolol destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Atenolol Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Atenolol pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Atenolol?
Depending on the reaction of the Atenolol after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Atenolol not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Atenolol addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Atenolol, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Atenolol consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Visitor reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported side effectsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported price estimatesNo survey data has been collected yet
One visitor reported frequency of useHow often in a day do you take the medicine?
Are you taking the Atenolol drug as prescribed by the doctor?
Few medications can be taken Twice in a day more than prescribed when the doctor's advice mentions the medicine can be taken according to frequency or severity of symptoms. Most times, be very careful and clear about the number of times you are taking the medication. The report of sdrugs.com website users about the frequency of taking the drug Atenolol is mentioned below.
Seven visitors reported dosesWhat is the dose of Atenolol drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 11-50mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Two visitors reported time for resultsWhat is the time duration Atenolol drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms?
Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sdrugs.com website users needed > 3 month to notice the result from using Atenolol drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Atenolol need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
Visitor reported administrationNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported ageNo survey data has been collected yet
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology