DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
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Aprogen® is indicated for prophylactic use to reduce perioperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass in the course of coronary artery bypass graft surgery who are at an increased risk for blood loss and blood transfusion.
Hypersensitivity to Aprogen.
Administration of Aprogen® to patients with a known or suspected previous Aprogen exposure during the last 12 months is contraindicated. For patients with known or suspected history of exposure to Aprogen greater than 12 months previously, see WARNINGS. Aprogen may also be a component of some fibrin sealant products and the use of these products should be included in the patient history.
Anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions have occurred with Aprogen® administration, including fatal reactions in association with the initial (test) dose. The initial (test) dose does not fully predict a patient’s risk for a hypersensitivity reaction, including a fatal reaction. Fatal hypersensitivity reactions have occurred among patients who tolerated an initial (test) dose.
Hypersensitivity reactions often manifest as anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions with hypotension the most frequently reported sign of the hypersensitivity reaction. The hypersensitivity reaction can progress to anaphylactic shock with circulatory failure. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs during injection or infusion of Aprogen®, administration should be stopped immediately and emergency treatment should be initiated. Even when a second exposure to Aprogen has been tolerated without symptoms, a subsequent administration may result in severe hypersensitivity/anaphylactic reactions. Trasylol® should be administered only in operative settings where cardiopulmonary bypass can be rapidly initiated. Before initiating treatment with Aprogen®, the recommendations below should be followed to manage a potential hypersensitivity or anaphylactic reaction: 1) Have standard emergency treatments for hypersensitivity or anaphylactic reactions readily available in the operating room (e.g., epinephrine, corticosteroids). 2) Administration of the initial (test) dose and loading dose should be done only when the patient is intubated and when conditions for rapid cannulation and initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass are present. 3) Delay the addition of Aprogen® into the pump prime solution until after the loading dose has been safely administered.
Re-exposure to Aprogen: Administration of Aprogen, especially to patients who have received Aprogen in the past, requires a careful risk/benefit assessment because an allergic reaction may occur. Although the majority of cases of anaphylaxis occur upon re-exposure within the first 12 months, there are also case reports of anaphylaxis occurring upon re-exposure after more than 12 months.
In a retrospective review of 387 European patient records with documented re-exposure to Aprogen®, the incidence of hypersensitivity/anaphylactic reactions was 2.7%. Two patients who experienced hypersensitivity/anaphylactic reactions subsequently died, 24 hours and 5 days after surgery, respectively. The relationship of these 2 deaths to Aprogen® is unclear. This retrospective review also showed that the incidence of a hypersensitivity or anaphylactic reaction following re-exposure is increased when the re-exposure occurs within 6 months of the initial administration (5.0% for re-exposure within 6 months and 0.9% for re-exposure greater than 6 months). Other smaller studies have shown that in case of re-exposure, the incidence of hypersensitivity/anaphylactic reactions may reach the five percent level. An analysis of all spontaneous reports from the Bayer Global database covering a period from 1985 to March 2006 revealed that of 291 possibly associated spontaneous cases of hypersensitivity (fatal: n=52 and non-fatal: n=239), 47% (138/291) of hypersensitivity cases had documented previous exposure to Aprogen®. Of the 138 cases with documented previous exposure, 110 had information on the time of the previous exposure. Ninety-nine of the 110 cases had previous exposure within the prior 12 months.
Renal Dysfunction: Aprogen® administration increases the risk for renal dysfunction and may increase the need for dialysis in the perioperative period. This risk may be especially increased for patients with pre-existing renal impairment or those who receive aminoglycoside antibiotics or drugs that alter renal function. Data from Bayer’s global pool of placebo-controlled studies in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery showed that the incidence of serum creatinine elevations >0.5 mg/dL above pre-treatment levels was statistically higher at 9.0% (185/2047) in the high-dose Aprogen (Regimen A) group compared with 6.6% (129/1957) in the placebo group. In the majority of instances, post-operative renal dysfunction was not severe and was reversible. However, renal dysfunction may progress to renal failure and the incidence of serum creatinine elevations >2.0 mg/dL above baseline was slightly higher in the high-dose Aprogen group (1.1% vs. 0.8%). Careful consideration of the balance of benefits versus potential risks is advised before administering Aprogen® to patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance < 60 mL/min) or those with other risk factors for renal dysfunction (such as perioperative administration of aminogylcoside or products that alter renal function).
Initial Dose: All patients treated with Aprogen® should first receive an initial (test) dose to minimize the extent of Aprogen® exposure and to help assess the potential for allergic reactions. Initiation of this initial (test) dose should occur only in operative settings where cardiopulmonary bypass can be rapidly initiated. The initial (test) dose of 1 mL Aprogen® should be administered intravenously at least 10 minutes prior to the loading dose and the patient should be observed for manifestations of possible hypersensitivity reaction. However, even after the uneventful administration of the initial 1 mL (test) dose, any subsequent dose may cause an anaphylactic reaction. If this happens, the infusion of Aprogen® should immediately be stopped and standard emergency treatment for anaphylaxis applied. It should be noted that serious, even fatal, hypersensitivity/anaphylactic reactions can also occur with administration of the initial (test) dose.
Allergic Reactions: Patients with a history of allergic reactions to drugs or other agents may be at greater risk of developing a hypersensitivity or anaphylactic reaction upon exposure to Aprogen®.
Loading Dose: The loading dose of Aprogen® should be given intravenously to patients in the supine position over a 20-30 minute period. Rapid intravenous administration of Aprogen® can cause a transient fall in blood pressure.
Renal Dysfunction: Bayer’s global pool of placebo-controlled studies in patients undergoing CABG showed Aprogen administration was associated with elevations of serum creatinine values > 0.5 mg/dL above baseline. Careful consideration of the balance of benefits and risks is advised before administering Aprogen to patients with pre-existing impaired renal function or those with other risk factors for renal dysfunction. Serum creatinine should be monitored regularly following Aprogen® administration.
Use of Aprogen® in patients undergoing deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: Two U.S. case control studies have reported contradictory results in patients receiving Aprogen® while undergoing deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in connection with surgery of the aortic arch. The first study showed an increase in both renal failure and mortality compared to age-matched historical controls. Similar results were not observed, however, in a second case control study. The strength of this association is uncertain because there are no data from randomized studies to confirm or refute these findings.
Aprogen® is known to have antifibrinolytic activity and, therefore, may inhibit the effects of fibrinolytic agents.
In study of nine patients with untreated hypertension, Aprogen® infused intravenously in a dose of 2 million KIU over two hours blocked the acute hypotensive effect of 100mg of captopril. Trasylol®, in the presence of heparin, has been found to prolong the activated clotting time (ACT) as measured by a celite surface activation method. The kaolin activated clotting time appears to be much less affected. However, Aprogen® should not be viewed as a heparin sparing agent.
Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Aprogen® or studies to determine the effect of Aprogen® on fertility have not been performed.
Results of microbial in vitro tests using Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis indicate that Aprogen® is not a mutagen.Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B:
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at intravenous doses up to 200,000 KIU/kg/day for 11 days, and in rabbits at intravenous doses up to 100,000 KIU/kg/day for 13 days, 2.4 and 1.2 times the human dose on a mg/kg basis and 0.37 and 0.36 times the human mg/m2 dose. They have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Aprogen®. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patient have not been established.
Of the total of 3083 subjects in clinical studies of Aprogen®, 1100 (35.7 percent) were 65 and over, while 297 (9.6 percent) were 75 and over. Of patients 65 years and older, 479 (43.5 percent) received Regimen A and 237 (21.5 percent) received Regimen B. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects for either dose regimen, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.
Aprogen® prolongs whole blood clotting times by a different mechanism than heparin. In the presence of Aprogen, prolongation is dependent on the type of whole blood clotting test employed. If an activated clotting time (ACT) is used to determine the effectiveness of heparin anticoagulation, the prolongation of the ACT by Aprogen may lead to an overestimation of the degree of anticoagulation, thereby leading to inadequate anticoagulation. During extended extracorporeal circulation, patients may require additional heparin, even in the presence of ACT levels that appear adequate.
In patients undergoing CPB with Aprogen® therapy, one of the following methods may be employed to maintain adequate anticoagulation:
Studies of patients undergoing CABG surgery, either primary or repeat, indicate that Aprogen® is generally well tolerated. The adverse events reported are frequent sequelae of cardiac surgery and are not necessarily attributable to Aprogen® therapy. Adverse events reported, up to the time of hospital discharge, from patients in US placebo-controlled trials are listed in the following table. The table lists only those events that were reported in 2% or more of the Aprogen® treated patients without regard to causal relationship.
values in %
(n = 1084)
values in %
|Body as a Whole|
|Liver Function Tests Abnormal||3||2|
|Hemic and Lymphatic|
|Metabolic & Nutritional|
|Creatine Phosphokinase Increased||2||1|
|Skin and Appendages|
|Kidney Function Abnormal||3||2|
|Urinary Tract Infection||2||2|
In comparison to the placebo group, no increase in mortality in patients treated with Aprogen® was observed. Additional events of particular interest from controlled US trials with an incidence of less than 2%, are listed below:
|EVENT||Percentage of patients|
treated with Aprogen®
N = 2002
|Percentage of patients|
treated with Placebo
N = 1084
|Acute Kidney Failure||0.5||0.6|
|Kidney Tubular Necrosis||0.8||0.4|
Listed below are additional events, from controlled US trials with an incidence between 1 and 2%, and also from uncontrolled, compassionate use trials and spontaneous post-marketing reports. Estimates of frequency cannot be made for spontaneous post-marketing reports (italicized).
Body as a Whole: Sepsis, death, multi-system organ failure, immune system disorder, hemoperitoneum.Cardiovascular: Ventricular fibrillation, heart arrest, bradycardia, congestive heart failure, hemorrhage, bundle branch block, myocardial ischemia, ventricular tachycardia, heart block, pericardial effusion, ventricular arrhythmia, shock, pulmonary hypertension.Digestive: Dyspepsia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, jaundice, hepatic failure.Hematologic and Lymphatic: Although thrombosis was not reported more frequently in Aprogen versus placebo-treated patients in controlled trials, it has been reported in uncontrolled trials, compassionate use trials, and spontaneous post-marketing reporting. These reports of thrombosis encompass the following terms: thrombosis, occlusion, arterial thrombosis, pulmonary thrombosis, coronary occlusion, embolus, pulmonary embolus, thrombophlebitis, deep thrombophlebitis, cerebrovascular accident, cerebral embolism. Other hematologic events reported include leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, coagulation disorder (which includes disseminated intravascular coagulation), decreased prothrombin.Metabolic and Nutritional: Hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, hypervolemia, acidosis.Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia.Nervous: Agitation, dizziness, anxiety, convulsion.Respiratory: Pneumonia, apnea, increased cough, lung edema.Skin:Skin discoloration.Urogenital: Oliguria, kidney failure, acute kidney failure, kidney tubular necrosis.
Myocardial Infarction: In the pooled analysis of all patients undergoing CABG surgery, there was no significant difference in the incidence of investigator-reported myocardial infarction (MI) in Aprogen® treated patients as compared to placebo treated patients. However, because no uniform criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction were utilized by investigators, this issue was addressed prospectively in three later studies (two studies evaluated Regimen A, Regimen B and Pump Prime Regimen; one study evaluated only Regimen A), in which data were analyzed by a blinded consultant employing an algorithm for possible, probable or definite MI. Utilizing this method, the incidence of definite myocardial infarction was 5.9% in the aprotinin-treated patients versus 4.7% in the placebo treated patients. This difference in the incidence rates was not statistically significant. Data from these three studies are summarized below.
|Definite or Probable MI|
|Definite, Probable or Possible MI|
|Pooled Data from Three Studies that Evaluated Regimen A|
n = 646
n = 661
|Pooled Data from Two Studies that Evaluated Regimen B and Pump Prime Regimen|
n = 241
n = 239
n = 240
Graft Patency: In a recently completed multi-center, multi-national study to determine the effects of Aprogen® Regimen A vs. placebo on saphenous vein graft patency in patients undergoing primary CABG surgery, patients were subjected to routine postoperative angiography. Of the 13 study sites, 10 were in the United States and three were non-U.S. centers (Denmark (1), Israel (2)). The results of this study are summarized below.
|Overall Closure Rates*||Incidence of MI**||Incidence of Death***|
n = 703
n = 381
n = 831
n = 870
|CI for the|
(Drug - Placebo)
|(1.3, 9.6)†||(-3.8, 5.9)†||-3.3 to 1.5‡||-1.9 to 1.4‡|
|* Population: all patients with assessable saphenous vein grafts|
|** Population: all patients assessable by blinded consultant|
|*** All patients|
|† 90%; per protocol|
|‡ 95%; not specified in protocol|
Although there was a statistically significantly increased risk of graft closure for Aprogen® treated patients compared to patients who received placebo (p=0.035), further analysis showed a significant treatment by site interaction for one of the non-U.S. sites vs. the U.S. centers. When the analysis of graft closures was repeated for U.S. centers only, there was no statistically significant difference in graft closure rates in patients who received Aprogen® vs. placebo. These results are the same whether analyzed as the proportion of patients who experienced at least one graft closure postoperatively or as the proportion of grafts closed. There were no differences between treatment groups in the incidence of myocardial infarction as evaluated by the blinded consultant (2.9% Aprogen® vs. 3.8% placebo) or of death (1.4% Aprogen® vs. 1.6% placebo) in this study.
Hypersensitivity and Anaphylaxis: See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS.
Hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions during surgery were rarely reported in U.S. controlled clinical studies in patients with no prior exposure to Aprogen® (1/1424 patients or <0.1% on Aprogen® vs. 1/861 patients or 0.1% on placebo). In case of re-exposure the incidence of hypersensitivity/anaphylactic reactions has been reported to reach the 5% level. A review of 387 European patient records involving re-exposure to Aprogen® showed that the incidence of hypersensitivity or anaphylactic reactions was 5.0% for re-exposure within 6 months and 0.9% for re-exposure greater than 6 months.
Serum Creatinine: Aprogen® administration is associated with a risk for renal dysfunction.
Serum Transaminases: Data pooled from all patients undergoing CABG surgery in U.S. placebo-controlled trials showed no evidence of an increase in the incidence of postoperative hepatic dysfunction in patients treated with Aprogen®. The incidence of treatment-emergent increases in ALT (formerly SGPT) > 1.8 times the upper limit of normal was 14% in both the Aprogen® and placebo-treated patients (p=0.687), while the incidence of increases > 3 times the upper limit of normal was 5% in both groups (p=0.847).
Other Laboratory Findings: The incidence of treatment-emergent elevations in plasma glucose, AST (formerly SGOT), LDH, alkaline phosphatase, and CPK-MB was not notably different between Aprogen® and placebo treated patients undergoing CABG surgery. Significant elevations in the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and celite Activated Clotting Time (celite ACT) are expected in Aprogen® treated patients in the hours after surgery due to circulating concentrations of Aprogen®, which are known to inhibit activation of the intrinsic clotting system by contact with a foreign material (e.g., celite), a method used in these tests.
The maximum amount of Aprogen® that can be safely administered in single or multiple doses has not been determined. Doses up to 17.5 million KIU have been administered within a 24 hour period without any apparent toxicity. There is one poorly documented case, however, of a patient who received a large, but not well determined, amount of Aprogen® (in excess of 15 million KIU) in 24 hours. The patient, who had pre-existing liver dysfunction, developed hepatic and renal failure postoperatively and died. Autopsy showed hepatic necrosis and extensive renal tubular and glomerular necrosis. The relationship of these findings to Aprogen® therapy is unclear.
Aprogen® given prophylactically in both Regimen A and Regimen B to patients undergoing CABG surgery significantly reduced the donor blood transfusion requirement relative to placebo treatment. In low risk patients there is no difference in efficacy between regimen A and B. Therefore, the dosage used (A vs. B) is at the discretion of the practitioner.
Aprogen® is supplied as a solution containing 10,000 KIU/mL, which is equal to 1.4 mg/mL. All intravenous doses of Aprogen® should be administered through a central line. DO NOT ADMINISTER ANY OTHER DRUG USING THE SAME LINE. Both regimens include a 1 mL initial (test) dose, a loading dose, a dose to be added while recirculating the priming fluid of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit (“pump prime” dose), and a constant infusion dose. To avoid physical incompatibility of Aprogen® and heparin when adding to the pump prime solution, each agent must be added during recirculation of the pump prime to assure adequate dilution prior to admixture with the other component. Regimens A and B, both incorporating a 1 mL initial (test) dose, are described in the table below:
(1.4 mg, or
(280 mg, or
2.0 million KIU)
|200 mL |
280 mg, or
2.0 million KIU)
|50 mL/hr |
(70 mg/hr, or
(1.4 mg, or
|100 mL |
(140 mg, or
1.0 million KIU)
|100 mL |
(140 mg, or
1.0 million KIU)
(35 mg/hr, or
The 1 ml initial (test) dose should be administered intravenously at least 10 minutes before the loading dose. With the patient in a supine position, the loading dose is given slowly over 20-30 minutes, after induction of anesthesia but prior to sternotomy. In patients with known previous exposure to Aprogen®, the loading dose should be given just prior to cannulation. When the loading dose is complete, it is followed by the constant infusion dose, which is continued until surgery is complete and the patient leaves the operating room. The “pump prime” dose is added to the recirculating priming fluid of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit, by replacement of an aliquot of the priming fluid, prior to the institution of cardiopulmonary bypass. Total doses of more than 7 million KIU have not been studied in controlled trials.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Discard any unused portion.
Aprogen® administration is associated with a risk for renal dysfunction. Changes in Aprogen pharmacokinetics with age or impaired renal function are not great enough to require any dose adjustment. Pharmacokinetic data from patients with pre-existing hepatic disease treated with Aprogen® are not available.
|100 mL vials||1,000,000 KIU||0026-8196-36|
|200 mL vials||2,000,000 KIU||0026-8197-63|
Aprogen® should be stored between 2° and 25°C (36° - 77°F).
Protect from freezing.
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Made in Germany
©2006 Bayer Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Printed in USA
Depending on the reaction of the Aprogen after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Aprogen not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Aprogen addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology