DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Aprezin is a combination of isosorbide dinitrate, a nitrate vasodilator, and Aprezin hydrochloride, an arteriolar vasodilator, indicated for:
Limitations of use:
1.1 Treatment of Heart Failure in Self-identified Black Patients
Aprezin is indicated for the treatment of heart failure as an adjunct to standard therapy in self-identified black patients to improve survival, to prolong time to hospitalization for heart failure, and to improve patient-reported functional status.
1.2 Limitations of Use
There is little experience in patients with NYHA class IV heart failure.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Aprezin should be initiated at a dose of one Aprezin Tablet, three times a day. Titrate to a maximum of two tablets three times daily, if tolerated.
Although titration of Aprezin can be rapid (3-5 days), some patients may experience side effects and may take longer to reach their maximum tolerated dose. The dosage may be decreased to as little as one-half Aprezin Tablet three times a day if intolerable side effects occur. Efforts should be made to titrate up as soon as side effects subside.
One tablet three times a day titrated to a maximum tolerated dose up to two tablets three times a day (2)
Dosage may be decreased to as little as one-half tablet three times a day if intolerable side effects occur. Efforts should be made to titrate up as soon as side effects subside (2)
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
The Aprezin (20 mg isosorbide dinitrate and 37.5 mg Aprezin hydrochloride) tablets are orange, biconvex, approximately 8 mm in diameter, scored, film-coated, and debossed with "20" on one side over the score and "N" on the other side.
Tablets (scored): 20 mg isosorbide dinitrate and 37.5 mg Aprezin hydrochloride (3)
Aprezin is contraindicated in patients who are allergic to organic nitrates.
Do not use Aprezin in patients who are taking PDE-5 inhibitors, such as avanafil, sildenafil, tadalafil, or vardenafil. Concomitant use can cause severe hypotension, syncope, or myocardial ischemia .
Do not use Aprezin in patients who are taking the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator riociguat. Concomitant use can cause hypotension.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Symptomatic hypotension, particularly with upright posture, may occur with even small doses of Aprezin. Hypotension is most likely to occur in patients who have been volume or salt depleted; correct prior to initiation of Aprezin .
5.2 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Aprezin hydrochloride has been reported to cause a drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus syndrome. Symptoms and signs usually regress when Aprezin hydrochloride is discontinued.
5.3 Worsening Ischemic Heart Disease
Aprezin hydrochloride can cause tachycardia and hypotension potentially leading to myocardial ischemia and angina, particularly in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
5.4 Peripheral Neuritis
Aprezin hydrochloride has been associated with peripheral neuritis, evidenced by paresthesia, numbness, and tingling, which may be related to an antipyridoxine effect. Pyridoxine should be added to Aprezin therapy if such symptoms develop.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
Most common adverse reactions were headache and dizziness (6.1)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Arbor Pharmaceuticals, LLC at 1-866-516-4950 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Aprezin has been evaluated for safety in 517 heart failure patients in A-HeFT. A total of 317 of these patients received Aprezin for at least 6 months, and 220 received Aprezin for at least 12 months. In A-HeFT, 21% of the patients discontinued Aprezin for adverse reactions compared to 12% who discontinued placebo. Overall, adverse reactions were more common in Aprezin -treated than in placebo-treated patients. Table 1 lists adverse reactions reported with an incidence, after rounding, ≥ 2% higher on Aprezin than on placebo in A-HeFT, regardless of causality. The most common reasons for discontinuing Aprezin in the A-HeFT trial was headache (7%).
In the V-HeFT I and II clinical studies, a total of 587 patients with heart failure were treated with the combination of isosorbide dinitrate and Aprezin hydrochloride. The type, pattern, frequency and severity of adverse reactions reported in these studies were similar to those reported in A-HeFT, described above and no unusual adverse reactions were reported.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Aprezin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Use of Aprezin: The following adverse reactions have been identified with use of Aprezin.
Use of Aprezin Hydrochloride or Isosorbide Dinitrate: The following reactions have been reported with use of either Aprezin hydrochloride or isosorbide dinitrate.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
Aprezin is contraindicated in patients who are using a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), PDE5 inhibitors such as avanafil, sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil have been shown to potentiate the hypotensive effects of organic nitrates. Do not use Aprezin in patients who are taking the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator riociguat. Concomitant use can cause hypotension .
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C:
There are no studies using Aprezin in pregnant women.
Isosorbide dinitrate has been shown to cause a dose-related increase in embryo-toxicity (excess mummified pups) in rabbits at 70 mg/kg (12 times the MRHD of Aprezin on a body surface area basis).
Aprezin hydrochloride is teratogenic in mice at 66 mg/kg and possibly in rabbits at 33 mg/kg (2 and 3 times the MRHD of Aprezin on a body surface area basis). There are no animal studies assessing the teratogenicity of Aprezin.
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing Aprezin hydrochloride with other antihypertensive agents for severe hypertension in pregnancy found that Aprezin hydrochloride was associated with significantly more maternal hypotension, placental abruption, caesarean sections and oliguria, with more adverse effects on fetal heart rate and with lower Apgar scores.
A combination of propranolol and Aprezin hydrochloride was administered to 13 patients with long-standing hypertension during 15 pregnancies. These pregnancies resulted in 14 live births and one unexplained stillbirth. The only neonatal complications were two cases of mild hypoglycemia. Aprezin hydrochloride and its metabolites have been detected using a non-selective assay in maternal and umbilical plasma in patients treated with the drug during pregnancy.
Isosorbide dinitrate has been used for effective acute and sub-chronic control of hypertension in pregnant women, but there are no studies using it in a chronic regimen and assessing its effects on pregnant women and/or the fetus.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
No studies have been performed with Aprezin. It is not known if either Aprezin or isosorbide dinitrate is excreted in human milk.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of Aprezin in children have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of Aprezin did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should start at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic and renal function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapies.
Isosorbide dinitrate, its active metabolites, and Aprezin may be eliminated more slowly in elderly patients.
8.6 Renal Impairment
There are no studies of renal impairment using Aprezin. No dose adjustment is required for Aprezin or isosorbide dinitrite .
Dialyzability of Aprezin has not been determined. Dialysis is not an effective method for removing isosorbide dinitrate or its metabolite isosorbide-5-mononitrate from the body.
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Aprezin alone has not been determined. Isosorbide dinitrate concentrations increase in patients with cirrhosis. There are no studies of hepatic impairment using Aprezin.
The signs and symptoms of overdosage with Aprezin are expected to be those of excessive pharmacologic effect, i.e., vasodilatation, reduced cardiac output and hypotension, and signs and symptoms include headache, confusion, tachycardia, and generalized skin flushing. Complications can include myocardial ischemia and subsequent myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and profound shock. Syncope, coma and death may ensue without appropriate treatment.
Human Experience: There are no documented cases of overdosage with Aprezin. No deaths from acute poisoning have been reported.
Treatment: There is no specific antidote. Support of the cardiovascular system is of primary importance. Shock should be treated with plasma expanders, vasopressors, and positive inotropic agents. The gastric contents should be evacuated, taking adequate precautions to prevent aspiration. These manipulations have to be carried out after cardiovascular status has been stabilized, since they might precipitate cardiac arrhythmias or increase the depth of shock.
In patients with renal disease or congestive heart failure, therapy resulting in central volume expansion is not without hazard. Treatment of isosorbide dinitrate overdose in these patients may be difficult, and invasive monitoring may be required.
No data are available to suggest physiological maneuvers (e.g., maneuvers to change the pH of the urine) that might accelerate elimination of the components of Aprezin. Dialysis is not effective in removing circulating isosorbide dinitrate. The dialyzability of Aprezin has not been determined.
Methemoglobinemia: Nitrate ions liberated during metabolism of isosorbide dinitrate can oxidize hemoglobin into methemoglobin. There are case reports of significant methemoglobinemia in association with moderate overdoses of organic nitrates. Methemoglobin levels are measurable by most clinical laboratories. Methemoglobinemia could be serious in chronic heart failure patients because of already compromised vascular bed-tissue gas exchange dynamics. Classically, methemoglobinemic blood is described as chocolate brown, without color change on exposure to air. When methemoglobinemia is diagnosed, the treatment of choice is methylene blue, 1 to 2 mg/kg intravenously.
Aprezin is a fixed-dose combination of isosorbide dinitrate, a vasodilator with effects on both arteries and veins, and Aprezin hydrochloride, a predominantly arterial vasodilator.
Isosorbide dinitrate is described chemically as 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-glucitol dinitrate and its structural formula is:
Isosorbide dinitrate is a white to off-white, crystalline powder with the empirical formula C6H8N2O8 and a molecular weight of 236.14. It is freely soluble in organic solvents such as alcohol, chloroform and ether, but is only sparingly soluble in water.
Aprezin hydrochloride is described chemically as 1-hydrazinophthalazine monohydrochloride, and its structural formula is:
Aprezin hydrochloride is a white to off-white, crystalline powder with the empirical formula C8H8N4-HCl and a molecular weight of 196.64. It is soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and very slightly soluble in ether.
Each Aprezin Tablet for oral administration contains 20 mg of isosorbide dinitrate and 37.5 mg of Aprezin hydrochloride.
The inactive ingredients in Aprezin tablets include: anhydrous lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, FD&C Yellow No. 6 aluminum lake, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, polysorbate 80.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
The mechanism of action underlying the beneficial effects of Aprezin in the treatment of heart failure has not been established.
Isosorbide dinitrate is a vasodilator affecting both arteries and veins. Its dilator properties result from the release of nitric oxide and the subsequent activation of guanylyl cyclase, and ultimate relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.
Several well-controlled clinical trials have used exercise testing to assess the anti-anginal efficacy of chronically-delivered nitrates. In the large majority of these trials, active agents were no more effective than placebo after 24 hours of continuous therapy. Attempts to overcome nitrate tolerance by dose escalation, even to doses far in excess of those used acutely, have consistently failed. Only after nitrates have been absent from the body for several hours is response to nitrates restored.
Aprezin hydrochloride is a selective dilator of arterial smooth muscle. Animal data suggests that Aprezin may also mitigate tolerance to nitrates.
The basis for the beneficial clinical effects of Aprezin is not known. In a small study of patients with chronic heart failure administered single doses of Aprezin 75 mg, isosorbide dinitrate 20 mg, and the combination, the combination elicited a statistically significant decrease in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure compared to Aprezin alone. The increase in cardiac output, renal blood flow and limb blood flow with the combination, however, was not greater than with Aprezin alone. There is no study of hemodynamic effects following multiple dosing.
Aprezin: Following a single 75-mg oral dose of Aprezin plus 40 mg of isosorbide dinitrate to 19 healthy adults, peak plasma concentrations of Aprezin (88 ng/mL/65 kg) and isosorbide dinitrate (76 ng/mL/65 kg) were reached in 1 hour. The half-lives were about 4 hours for Aprezin and about 2 hours for isosorbide dinitrate. Peak plasma concentrations of the two active metabolites, isosorbide-2-mononitrate and isosorbide-5-mononitrate, were 98 and 364 ng/mL/65 kg, respectively, at about 2 hours. No information is currently available regarding the effect of food on the bioavailability of Aprezin or isosorbide dinitrate from Aprezin tablets.
Aprezin hydrochloride: About 2/3 of a 50-mg dose of 14C-hydralazine hydrochloride given in gelatin capsules was absorbed in hypertensive subjects. In patients with heart failure, mean absolute bioavailability of a single oral dose of Aprezin 75 mg varies from 10 to 26%, with the higher percentages in slow acetylators. Administration of doses escalating from 75 mg to 1000 mg three times daily to congestive heart failure patients resulted in an up to 9-fold increase in the dose normalized AUC, indicating non-linear kinetics of Aprezin, probably reflecting saturable first pass metabolism.
Isosorbide dinitrate : Absorption of isosorbide dinitrate from tablets after oral dosing is nearly complete. The average bioavailability of isosorbide dinitrate is about 25%, but is highly variable (10%-90%) because of first-pass metabolism, and increases progressively during chronic therapy. Serum concentrations reach their maximum about one hour after ingestion.
Aprezin hydrochloride: After intravenous administration of Aprezin in a dose of 0.3 mg/kg, the steady-state volume of distribution in patients with congestive heart failure was 2.2 L/kg.
Isosorbide dinitrate: The volume of distribution of isosorbide dinitrate is 2 to 4 L/kg. About 28% of circulating isosorbide dinitrate is protein bound.
Under steady-state conditions, isosorbide dinitrate accumulates significantly in muscle (pectoral) and vein (saphenous) wall relative to simultaneous plasma concentrations.
Aprezin is metabolized by acetylation, ring oxidation and conjugation with endogenous compounds including pyruvic acid. Acetylation occurs predominantly during the first-pass after oral administration which explains the dependence of the absolute bioavailability on the acetylator phenotype. About 50% of patients are fast acetylators and have lower exposure.
After oral administration of Aprezin, the major circulating metabolites are Aprezin pyruvate hydrazone and methyltriazolophthalazine. Aprezin is the main pharmacologically active entity; Aprezin pyruvate hydrazone has only minimal hypotensive and tachycardic activity. The pharmacological activity of methyltriazolophthalazine has not been determined. The major identified metabolite of Aprezin excreted in urine is acetylhydrazinophthalazinone.
Isosorbide dinitrate undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver and is cleared at a rate of 2 to 4 L/minute with a serum half-life of about 1 hour. Isosorbide dinitrate's clearance is primarily by denitration to the 2-mononitrate (15 to 25%) and the 5-mononitrate (75 to 85%). Both metabolites have biological activity, especially the 5-mononitrate which has an overall half-life of about 5 hours. The 5-mononitrate is cleared by denitration to isosorbide, glucuronidation to the 5-mononitrate glucuronides, and by denitration/hydration to sorbitol. The 2-mononitrate appears to participate in the same metabolic pathways with a half-life of about 2 hours.
Aprezin: Metabolism is the main route for the elimination of Aprezin. Negligible amounts of unchanged Aprezin are excreted in urine.
Isosorbide dinitrate: Most isosorbide dinitrate is eliminated renally as conjugated metabolites.
No pharmacokinetic studies in special populations were conducted with Aprezin. Pharmacokinetics in special populations is based on individual components.
Geriatric Patients -The pharmacokinetics of Aprezin and isosorbide dinitrate, alone or in combination, have not been determined in patients over 65 years of age.
Pediatric Patients - The pharmacokinetics of Aprezin and isosorbide dinitrate, alone or in combination, have not been determined in patients below the age of 18 years.
Gender - There are no studies of gender-dependent effects with Aprezin. In a single dose study with isosorbide dinitrate, no gender-dependent differences in the pharmacokinetics of isosorbide dinitrate and its mononitrate metabolites were found.
Renal Impairment - The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Aprezin has not been determined. In a study with 49 hypertensive patients on chronic therapy with Aprezin in daily doses of 25-200 mg, the daily dose of Aprezin in 19 subjects with severely impaired renal function (creatinine clearance 5-28 mL/min) and in 17 subjects with normal renal function (creatinine clearance >100 mL/min) using a population PK approach was not different, suggesting no need for dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment. The dialyzability of Aprezin has not been determined. In three studies, renal insufficiency did not affect the pharmacokinetics of isosorbide dinitrate. Dialysis is not an effective method for removing isosorbide dinitrate or its metabolite isosorbide-5-mononitrate from the body.
Hepatic Impairment - The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Aprezin alone has not been determined. Isosorbide dinitrate concentrations increase in patients with cirrhosis.
No pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction studies were conducted with Aprezin.
Aprezin: Administration of Aprezin can increase the exposure to a number of drugs including beta-blockers. In healthy males administered a single oral dose of Aprezin 50 mg and propranolol 1 mg/kg, the Cmax and AUC for propranolol approximately doubled. In healthy subjects administered a single oral dose of Aprezin 50 mg and metoprolol 100 mg, the Cmax and AUC for metoprolol increased by 50% and 30%, respectively. In pre-eclamptic women, twice-daily doses of Aprezin 25 mg and metoprolol 50 mg increased the Cmax and AUC for metoprolol by 90% and 40%, respectively.
In healthy males administered single oral doses of Aprezin 25 mg and either lisinopril 20 mg or enalapril 20 mg, Cmax and AUC for lisinopril were each increased 30%, but enalapril concentrations were unaffected.
Intravenous co-administration of 0.2 mg/kg Aprezin HCl and 40 mg furosemide in Japanese patients with congestive heart failure resulted in a 20% increase in the clearance of furosemide.
Isosorbide dinitrate: The vasodilating effects of coadministered isosorbide dinitrate may be additive to those of other vasodilators, including alcohol.
A single dose of 20 mg of isosorbide dinitrate was administered to healthy subjects after pretreatment with 80 mg propranolol three times daily for 48 hours, resulting in no impact on the pharmacokinetics of isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide-5-mononitrate.
When single 100-mg oral doses of atenolol were administered 2 hours before isosorbide dinitrate at a 10-mg dose no differences in the pharmacokinetics of isosorbide dinitrate or its mononitrates were observed.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Aprezin hydrochloride: An increased incidence of lung tumors (adenomas and adenocarcinomas) was observed in a lifetime study in Swiss albino mice given Aprezin hydrochloride continuously in their drinking water at a dosage of about 250 mg/kg per day (6 times the MRHD provided by Aprezin on a body surface area basis). In a 2-year carcinogenicity study of rats given Aprezin hydrochloride by gavage at dose levels of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day (up to 3 times the MRHD of Aprezin on a body surface area basis), microscopic examination of the liver revealed a small, but statistically significant increase in benign neoplastic nodules in males (high-dosage) and females (both high and intermediate dosage groups). Benign interstitial cell tumors of the testes were also significantly increased in the high-dose group.
Aprezin hydrochloride is mutagenic in bacterial systems, and is positive in rat and rabbit hepatocyte DNA repair studies in vitro. Additional in vivo and in vitro studies using lymphoma cells, germinal cells, fibroblasts from mice, bone marrow cells from Chinese hamsters and fibroblasts from human cell lines did not demonstrate any mutagenic or clastogenic potential for Aprezin hydrochloride.
Isosorbide dinitrate: No long-term animal studies have been performed to evaluate the mutagenic or carcinogenic potential of isosorbide dinitrate. A modified two-litter reproduction study among rats fed isosorbide dinitrate at 25 or 100 mg/kg/day (up to 9 times the Maximum Recommended Human Dose of Aprezin on a body surface area basis) revealed no evidence of altered fertility or gestation.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
Aprezin or a combination of isosorbide dinitrate and Aprezin hydrochloride was studied in two placebo-controlled clinical trials in 1,692 patients with mild to severe heart failure (mostly NYHA class II and III) and one active control trial (vs. enalapril) in 804 patients. The results of the trials follow:
Placebo-controlled Study : In the multicenter trial V-HeFT I, the combination of Aprezin and isosorbide dinitrate 75 mg/40 mg 4 times daily (n=186) was compared to placebo (n=273) in men with impaired cardiac function and reduced exercise tolerance (primarily NYHA class II and III) and on therapy with digitalis glycosides and diuretics. There was no overall significant difference in mortality between the two treatment groups. There was, however, a trend favoring Aprezin and isosorbide dinitrate, which on retrospective analysis, was attributable to an effect in blacks (n=128). Survival in white patients (n=324) was similar on placebo and the combination treatment.
Active-controlled Study: In a second study of mortality, V-HeFT II, the combination of Aprezin and isosorbide dinitrate 75 mg/40 mg 4 times daily was compared to enalapril in 804 men with impaired cardiac function and reduced exercise tolerance (NYHA class II and III), and on therapy with digitalis glycosides and diuretics. The combination of Aprezin and isosorbide dinitrate was inferior to enalapril overall, but retrospective analysis showed that the difference was observed in the white population (n=574); there was essentially no difference in the black population (n=215).
Based on these retrospective analyses suggesting an effect on survival in black patients, but showing little evidence of an effect in the white population, a third study was conducted among black patients with heart failure.
Placebo-controlled Study: The A-HeFT trial evaluated Aprezin vs. placebo among 1,050 self-identified black patients (over 95% NYHA class III) at 169 centers in the United States. All patients had stable symptomatic heart failure. Patients were required to have LVEF ≤ 35% or left ventricular internal diastolic dimension > 2.9 cm/m2 plus LVEF < 45%. Patients were maintained on stable background therapy and randomized to Aprezin (n=518) or placebo (n=532). Aprezin was initiated at 20 mg isosorbide dinitrate/37.5 mg Aprezin hydrochloride three times daily and titrated to a target dose of 40/75 mg three times daily or to the maximum tolerated dose. Patients were treated for up to 18 months.
The randomized population was 60% male, 1% NYHA class II, 95% NYHA class III and 4% NYHA class IV, with a mean age of 57 years, and was generally treated with standard treatments for heart failure including diuretics (94%, almost all loop diuretics), beta-blockers (87%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I; 78%), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs; 28%), either ACE-I or ARB (93%), digitalis glycosides (62%) and aldosterone antagonists (39%).
The primary endpoint was a composite score consisting of all-cause mortality, first hospitalization for heart failure, and responses to the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire. The trial was terminated early, at a mean follow-up of 12 months, primarily because of a statistically significant 43% reduction in all-cause mortality in the BiDil-treated group (p=0.012; see Table 2 and Figure 1). The primary endpoint was also statistically in favor of Aprezin (p ≤ 0.021). The BiDil-treated group also showed a 39% reduction in the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure (p<0.001; see Table 2 and Figure 2) and had statistically significant improvement in response to the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire, a self-report of the patient's functional status, at most time points. Patients in both treatment groups had mean baseline questionnaire scores of 51 (out of a possible 105).
Effects on survival and hospitalization for heart failure were similar in subgroups by age, gender, baseline disease, and use of concomitant medications, as shown in Figure 4.
Patients treated with Aprezin in the A-HeFT study had randomly measured blood pressures on average 3/3 mmHg lower than did patients on placebo. The contribution of the difference in blood pressure to the overall outcome difference is unknown. Whether both Aprezin and isosorbide dinitrate contribute to the overall outcome difference has not been studied in outcome trials. Isosorbide dinitrate and Aprezin have not been systematically studied for the treatment of heart failure as separate agents, and neither drug is indicated for heart failure.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Aprezin Tablets contain 20 mg of isosorbide dinitrate and 37.5 mg of Aprezin hydrochloride. They are biconvex, approximately 8 mm in diameter, scored, film-coated, orange tablets debossed "20" on one side over the score and "N" on the other side.
Store at 25°C (77°F), excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F). Keep bottles tightly closed.
Protect from light. Dispense in a light-resistant, tight container.
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Patients should be informed of possible side effects and advised to take the medication regularly and continuously as directed.
Inform patients that headaches often accompany treatment with Aprezin, especially during initiation of treatment. Advise patients to consult a physician to adjust the dose of Aprezin if headache continues with repeated dosing.
Warn patients about lightheadedness on standing.
Advise patients that inadequate fluid intake or excessive fluid loss from perspiration, diarrhea or vomiting may lead to an excessive fall in blood pressure and cause lightheadedness or even syncope. If syncope does occur, advise patients to discontinue Aprezin and notify their prescribing physician as soon as possible.
Advise patients to inform their physicians if they are taking, or planning to take, sildenafil, vardenafil, or tadalafil. Aprezin should not be taken concomitantly with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors.
Advise patients to inform their physicians of any worsening of symptoms of myocardial ischemia, especially those with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Advise patients if symptoms suggestive of systemic lupus erythematosus-such as arthralgia, fever, chest pain, prolonged malaise-occur to notify their prescribing physician.
Advise patients if symptoms of peripheral neuritis-paresthesia, numbness, and tingling-occur to notify the prescribing physician.
arbor PHARMACEUTICALS, LLC
Atlanta, GA 30328
Kremers Urban Pharmaceuticals Inc.,
a subsidiary of Lannett Company, Inc.
Seymour, IN 47274, USA
Aprezin is a registered trademark of Arbor Pharmaceuticals, LLC
COPYRIGHT © Arbor Pharmaceuticals, LLC, 2016
U.S. Patent number 6,784,177; 6,465,463
All rights reserved
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 180 Tablet Bottle Label
isosorbide dinitrate 20 mg/hydralazine HCl 37.5 mg
Store at room temperature 15°C - 30°C (59°F - 86°F)
BDTL1.03 Rev. 03/16
U.S. Patent #s 6,784,177; 6,465,463
Aprezin pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Aprezin available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Aprezin destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Aprezin Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Aprezin pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Aprezin?
Depending on the reaction of the Aprezin after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Aprezin not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Aprezin addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Aprezin, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Aprezin consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Visitor reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported side effectsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported price estimatesNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported frequency of useNo survey data has been collected yet
One visitor reported dosesWhat is the dose of Aprezin drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 11-50mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Visitor reported time for resultsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported administrationNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported ageNo survey data has been collected yet
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology