DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of panic disorders, with or without agoraphobia, and in generalized anxiety disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)
Indication: For the management of anxiety disorder or the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety and for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia.
Alprazolam, a benzodiazepine, is used to treat panic disorder and anxiety disorder. Unlike chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, and prazepam, Alprazolam has a shorter half-life and metabolites with minimal activity. Like other triazolo benzodiazepines such as triazolam, Alprazolam may have significant drug interactions involving the hepatic cytochrome P-450 3A4 isoenzyme. Clinically, all benzodiazepines cause a dose-related central nervous system depressant activity varying from mild impairment of task performance to hypnosis. Unlike other benzodiazepines, Alprazolam may also have some antidepressant activity, although clinical evidence of this is lacking.
Alprazolam is an anxiolytic drug, a derivative of triazolo-benzodiazepine. This medication has anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, central muscle relaxant effect. The mechanism of action is to enhance the inhibitory effect of endogenous GABA in the CNS by increasing the sensitivity of the GABA-receptor mediator as a result of stimulation of benzodiazepine receptors located in the allosteric center of postsynaptic GABA-receptor activating ascending reticular formation of brain stem neurons and the lateral horns of the spinal cord; reduces the excitability of the subcortical brain structures (the limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus), inhibits the polysynaptic spinal reflexes.
Pronounced anxiolytic activity (reduction of emotional tension, easing anxiety, fear, anxiety) is combined with moderate soporific effect; it shortens the period of sleep, increases sleep duration and reduces the number of nighttime awakenings. The mechanism of hypnotic action is inhibition of cell reticular formation of the brain.
After oral administration Alprazolam is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cmax plasma levels achieved within 1-2 hours. Binding to plasma proteins is 80%. This drud metabolized in the liver. T1/2 is an average of 12-15 hours. Alprazolam and its metabolites are mainly excreted by kidneys.
Why is Alprazolam prescribed?
Dosage and administration
Individual. It is recommended to use the minimum effective dose of Alprazolam Aurobindo. The dose is corrected in the treatment process depending on the achieved effect and tolerability. If necessary, increase the dose should be increased gradually, first in the evening and then in the daytime reception.
The initial dose of Alprazolam is 250-500 mcg 3 times / day, if necessary, it gradually increases to 4.5 mg / day.
For elderly or debilitated patients the initial dose is 250 mcg 2-3 / day, maintenance doses - 500-750 mcg / day, if necessary, taking into account the tolerance dose can be increased.
Cancellation or reduction of the dose of Alprazolam should be done gradually by reducing the daily dose of no more than 500 mcg every 3 days; sometimes can needed even more slowly cancelling.
Alprazolam side effects, adverse reactions
CNS: at the beginning of treatment drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness, decreased ability to concentrate, ataxia, disorientation, unsteady gait, slowing of mental and motor responses; rare - headache, euphoria, depression, tremors, memory loss, impaired coordination of movements, depressed mood, confusion, extrapyramidal dystonic reactions (involuntary movements, including for eyes), weakness, myasthenia gravis, dysarthria; in some cases - paradoxical reactions (aggressive flare, confusion, psychomotor agitation, fear, suicidal tendencies, muscle spasms, hallucinations, agitation, irritability, anxiety, insomnia).
Digestive system: possible dry mouth or excessive salivation, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, constipation or diarrhea, abnormal liver function, elevated liver transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, jaundice.
Hematopoietic system: possible leukopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis (chills, pyrexia, sore throat, extreme tiredness or weakness), anemia, thrombocytopenia.
Urinary tract: possible urinary incontinence, urinary retention, renal failure, decreased or increased libido, dysmenorrhea.
Endocrine system: possible change in body weight, disturbances in libido, menstrual irregularities.
Cardiovascular system: possible decrease in blood pressure, tachycardia.
Allergic reactions: possible skin rash, itching.
Coma, shock, myasthenia gravis, angle-closure glaucoma (acute attack or predisposition), acute alcohol poisoning (with the weakening of the vital functions), narcotic analgesics, hypnotics and psychotropic drugs, chronic obstructive airways disease with incipient respiratory failure, acute respiratory failure, severe depression (suicidal tendencies may occur), pregnancy (especially the I trimester), lactation, childhood and adolescence to 18 years, increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Alprazolam has a toxic effect on the fetus and increases the risk of birth defects when used in the I trimester of pregnancy. The constant use during pregnancy can cause physical dependence with the development of withdrawal syndrome in the newborn. Reception at therapeutic doses in the later stages of pregnancy can cause neonatal CNS depression. Using of Alprazolam immediately before birth or during labor can cause neonatal respiratory depression, decreased muscle tone, hypotension, hypothermia and a weak act of sucking.
It is possible to excretion of the benzodiazepines in breast milk that can cause drowsiness in the newborn and hinder feeding.
In experimental studies have been shown that Alprazolam and its metabolites are excreted in breast milk.
Keep in mind that anxiety or conditions related to everyday stress usually does not require treatment with anxiolytics.
If you experience paradoxical reactions then stop taking the drug. During the period of treatment is unacceptable to use of alcoholic drinks. With caution use Alprazolam for drivers of vehicles and people whose profession is associated with increased concentration.
Alprazolam drug interactions
The simultaneous use of Alprazolam with psychotropic, anticonvulsant medications and ethanol is observed enhancement inhibitory action Alprazolam on the CNS.
The simultaneous use with blockers of histamine H2-receptor reduce the clearance of Alprazolam and increase the inhibitory effect of Alprazolam on the CNS; macrolide antibiotics reduce the clearance of Alprazolam.
The simultaneous use with hormonal oral contraceptives increased T1/2 of Alprazolam.
Simultaneous administration of Alprazolam with dextropropoxyphene observed a more pronounced CNS depression than in combination with other benzodiazepines, as may increase the concentration of Alprazolam in blood plasma.
Simultaneous treatment with digoxin increases the risk of intoxication by cardiac glycosides.
Alprazolam increases the concentration of imipramine in plasma.
Simultaneous administration with itraconazole, ketoconazole increases the effects of Alprazolam.
Simultaneous administration with paroxetine may increases the effects of Alprazolam due to the inhibition of its metabolism.
Fluvoxamine increases the concentration of Alprazolam in plasma and risk of its side effects.
Simultaneous administration of Alprazolam with fluoxetine may increase the concentration of Alprazolam in plasma by decreasing its metabolism and clearance under the influence of fluoxetine which is accompanied by psychomotor disorders.
It can not be exclude the possibility of strengthening effect of Alprazolam for simultaneous administration with erythromycin.
Alprazolam in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: Varying degrees of CNS oppression (from sleepiness to coma) - drowsiness, confusion; in more severe cases (especially in patients receiving other drugs depressing the central nervous system or alcohol) - ataxia, decreased reflexes, hypotension, coma.
Treatment: induction of vomiting, gastric lavage, symptomatic therapy, monitor vital signs. In severe hypotension prescribed an injection of norepinephrine. Specific antidote is benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (administration only in a hospital).
Alprazolam pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Alprazolam available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Alprazolam destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Alprazolam Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Alprazolam pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Alprazolam?
Depending on the reaction of the Alprazolam after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Alprazolam not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Alprazolam addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
ReviewsDrugs.com conducted a study on Alprazolam, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Alprazolam consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
One visitor reported price estimatesWhat is your opinion about drug cost? Did you feel the cost is apt, or did you feel it is expensive?
The report given by the sDrugs.com website users shows the following figures about several people who felt the medicine Alprazolam is expensive, and the medicine is not expensive. The results are mixed. The perception of the cost of the medicine to be expensive or not depends on the brand name of the medicine, country, and place where it is sold, and the affordability of the patient. You can choose a generic drug in the place of the branded drug to save the cost. The efficiency of the medicine will not vary if it is generic or a branded one.
Ten visitors reported dosesWhat is the dose of Alprazolam drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sDrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 1-5mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Two visitors reported age
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology