DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Allopurinol

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Allopurinol uses


Pharmacological action

Allopurinol is a medication that violates the synthesis of uric acid. This drug is a structural analog of hypoxanthine. It inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which is involved in the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. This is due to decrease in the concentration of uric acid and its salts in body fluids and urine, which helps dissolve existing uric acid deposits and prevents their formation in tissues and kidney. Allopurinol increases urinary excretion of hypoxanthine and xanthine.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration Allopurinol is almost entirely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. This medication is metabolized to form alloxantin, which retains the ability to sufficiently long to inhibit xanthine oxidase. Cmax of Allopurinol in the blood plasma is reached after an average of 1.5 h, alloxantin - in 4.5 h after a single dose.

T1/2 of Allopurinol is 1-2 hours, alloxantin - about 15 hours. About 20% of the administered dose is excreted through the intestines and the rest by kidneys.

Why is Allopurinol prescribed?

Treatment and prevention of gout and hyperuricemia different genesis (including in conjunction with nephrolithiasis, renal failure, uric acid nephropathy). Recurrent mixed calcium oxalate kidney stones if hyperuricosuria. Increased production of urate due to enzyme disorders. Prevention of acute kidney disease in cytostatic and radiotherapy of tumors and leukemia, as well as full medical starvation.

Dosage and administration

The dosing regimen of Allopurinol is set individually under the control of concentrations of urate and uric acid in blood and urine. The ora ldose for adults is 100-900 mg / day depending on the severity of the disease. The frequency of admission is 2-4 times / day after a meal. For children under the age of 15 years - 10-20 mg / kg / day or 100-400 mg / day.

Maximum doses: if renal dysfunction - 100 mg / day. Increasing the dose is possible when on the background of the therapy remains an increased concentration of urate in the blood and urine.

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Allopurinol side effects, adverse reactions

Cardio-vascular system: in single cases - hypertension, bradycardia.

Digestive system: possible dyspepsia (including nausea, vomiting), diarrhea, transient increase of transaminases in blood serum; rarely - hepatitis, in single cases - stomatitis, liver function (transient increase of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase), steatorrhea.

CNS and peripheral nervous system: in single cases - weakness, fatigue, headache, dizziness, ataxia, drowsiness, depression, coma, paresis, paresthesia, seizures, neuropathy, visual impairment, cataracts, changes in the papilla of the optic nerve, disorders of taste sensations.

Hemopoietic system: in some cases - thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia, leukopenia (most likely in patients with impaired renal function).

Urinary system: rarely - interstitial nephritis, in single cases - edema, uremia, hematuria.

Endocrine system: in single cases - sterility, impotence, gynecomastia, diabetes.

Metabolism: in single cases - hyperlipidemia.

Allergic reactions: skin rash, redness, itching; in some cases - angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, fever, eosinophilia, fever, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Lyell's syndrome.

Dermatological reactions: in rare cases - furunculosis, alopecia, discoloration of hair.

Allopurinol contraindications

Pronounced liver function and / or renal disease, pregnancy, lactation, hypersensitivity to Allopurinol.

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Allopurinol is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation.

Category effects on the fetus by FDA - C.

Special instructions

It is necessary to maintain urine output of at least 2 liters a day and a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction of urine, because it prevents the precipitation of urate and the formation of concretions. You should not begin therapy with Allopurinol until complete relief of acute attack of gout; during the first month of treatment is recommended prophylactic administration of NSAIDs or colchicine; in the case of an acute attack of gout during therapy was added to the anti-inflammatory drugs. If impaired renal and liver function (increased risk of side effects), the dose is decreased. First 6-8 weeks of treatment need regular liver function tests, and blood diseases require regular laboratory monitoring.

When a skin rash this drug is overturned, after the disappearance of the not copious rash there are possible a reappointment of the drug in its treatment of relapsed immediately terminate.

Use of azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine on the background of Allopurinol permits a 4-fold reduction in their doses. This medication combined with a care with vidarabine.

Allopurinol drug interactions

With the simultaneous administration Allopurinol increases the effect of coumarin anticoagulants, adenine arabinoside, as well as hypoglycemic agents.

Uricosuric medicines and salicylates in high doses reduce the activity of Allopurinol Lejal Laboratories.

With the simultaneous administration of Allopurinol and cytostatics there is often manifested myelotoxic effect than when applied separatively.

With the simultaneous administration of this drug and azathioprine or mercaptopurine it is observed accumulation of the latter in the body, because in connection with the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibition with Allopurinol necessary to biotransformation of drugs, slowing their metabolism and elimination.

Allopurinol in case of emergency / overdose

Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, oliguria.

Treatment: forced diuresis, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

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Allopurinol pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Allopurinol available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.

Price
Allopurinol 100 mg tablet0.24 USD
Allopurinol 300 mg tablet0.46 USD
Allopurinol powder18.41 USD
Allopurinol sodium 500 mg vial583.14 USD
Aloprim 500 mg vial612.3 USD
Apo-Allopurinol 100 mg Tablet0.08 USD
Apo-Allopurinol 200 mg Tablet0.14 USD
Apo-Allopurinol 300 mg Tablet0.22 USD
Novo-Purol 100 mg Tablet0.08 USD
Novo-Purol 200 mg Tablet0.14 USD
Novo-Purol 300 mg Tablet0.22 USD
Suspendol-s liquid0.04 USD
Tablets; Oral; Allopurinol 100 mg
Tablets; Oral; Allopurinol 200 mg
Tablets; Oral; Allopurinol 300 mg
Zyloprim 100 mg tablet0.82 USD
Zyloprim 300 mg tablet1.89 USD

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Allopurinol destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Allopurinol Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Allopurinol pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."ALLOPURINOL TABLET [PD-RX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."ALLOPURINOL; LESINURAD: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "allopurinol". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Allopurinol?

Depending on the reaction of the Allopurinol after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Allopurinol not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Allopurinol addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Allopurinol, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Allopurinol consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

One visitor reported price estimates

What is your opinion about drug cost? Did you feel the cost is apt, or did you feel it is expensive?
The report given by the sDrugs.com website users shows the following figures about several people who felt the medicine Allopurinol is expensive, and the medicine is not expensive. The results are mixed. The perception of the cost of the medicine to be expensive or not depends on the brand name of the medicine, country, and place where it is sold, and the affordability of the patient. You can choose a generic drug in the place of the branded drug to save the cost. The efficiency of the medicine will not vary if it is generic or a branded one.
Visitors%
Expensive1
100.0%

One visitor reported frequency of use

How often in a day do you take the medicine?
Are you taking the Allopurinol drug as prescribed by the doctor?

Few medications can be taken Once in a day more than prescribed when the doctor's advice mentions the medicine can be taken according to frequency or severity of symptoms. Most times, be very careful and clear about the number of times you are taking the medication. The report of sDrugs.com website users about the frequency of taking the drug Allopurinol is mentioned below.
Visitors%
Once in a day1
100.0%

One visitor reported doses

What is the dose of Allopurinol drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sDrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 201-500mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Visitors%
201-500mg1
100.0%

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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