Adizem-XL Plus

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Adizem-XL Plus uses

Adizem-XL Plus consists of Diltiazem Hydrochloride, Hydrochlorothiazide.

Diltiazem Hydrochloride:


DESCRIPTION

Adizem-XL Plus (Diltiazem Hydrochloride) tablets USP are a calcium ion cellular influx inhibitor (slow channel blocker or calcium antagonist). Chemically, Adizem-XL Plus (Diltiazem Hydrochloride), USP is 1,5-Benzothiazepin-4(5H)one,3-(acetyloxy)-5-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,3-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-,monohydrochloride,(+)-cis-. The structural formula is:

C22H26N2O4S-HCl M.W. 450.98

Adizem-XL Plus (Diltiazem Hydrochloride), USP is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a bitter taste. It is soluble in water, methanol, and chloroform.

Each tablet for oral administration contains 30 mg, 60 mg, 90 mg, or 120 mg of Adizem-XL Plus (Diltiazem Hydrochloride), USP. Each tablet also contains the following inactive ingredients: hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, povidone, titanium dioxide and FD&C yellow #6 aluminum lake.

Adizem-XL Plus (Diltiazem Hydrochloride) tablets meet USP Dissolution Test 1.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

The therapeutic benefits achieved with diltiazem are believed to be related to its ability to inhibit the influx of calcium ions during membrane depolarization of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle.

Mechanisms of Action

Although precise mechanisms of its antianginal actions are still being delineated, diltiazem is believed to act in the following ways:

  • Angina Due to Coronary Artery Spasm. Diltiazem has been shown to be a potent dilator of coronary arteries both epicardial and subendocardial. Spontaneous and ergonovine-induced coronary artery spasm are inhibited by diltiazem.
  • Exertional Angina. Diltiazem has been shown to produce increases in exercise tolerance, probably due to its ability to reduce myocardial oxygen demand. This is accomplished via reductions in heart rate and systemic blood pressure at submaximal and maximal exercise workloads.

In animal models, diltiazem interferes with the slow inward current in excitable tissue. It causes excitation-contraction uncoupling in various myocardial tissues without changes in the configuration of the action potential. Diltiazem produces relaxation of coronary vascular smooth muscle and dilation of both large and small coronary arteries at drug levels which cause little or no negative inotropic effect. The resultant increases in coronary blood flow (epicardial and subendocardial) occur in ischemic and nonischemic models and are accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in systemic blood pressure and decreases in peripheral resistance.

Hemodynamic and Electrophysiologic Effects

Like other calcium antagonists, diltiazem decreases sinoatrial and atrioventricular conduction in isolated tissues and has a negative inotropic effect in isolated preparations. In the intact animal, prolongation of the AH interval can be seen at higher doses.

In man, diltiazem prevents spontaneous and ergonovine-provoked coronary artery spasm. It causes a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and a modest fall in blood pressure, and in exercise tolerance studies in patients with ischemic heart disease, reduces the heart rate-blood pressure product for any given workload. Studies to date, primarily in patients with good ventricular function, have not revealed evidence of a negative inotropic effect; cardiac output, ejection fraction, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure have not been affected. There are as yet few data on the interaction of diltiazem and beta-blockers. Resting heart rate is usually unchanged or slightly reduced by diltiazem.

Intravenous diltiazem in doses of 20 mg prolongs AH conduction time and AV node functional and effective refractory periods approximately 20%. In a study involving single oral doses of 300 mg of diltiazem in six normal volunteers, the average maximum PR prolongation was 14% with no instances of greater than first-degree AV block. Diltiazem-associated prolongation of the AH interval is not more pronounced in patients with first-degree heart block. In patients with sick sinus syndrome, diltiazem significantly prolongs sinus cycle length (up to 50% in some cases).

Chronic oral administration of diltiazem in doses of up to 240 mg/day has resulted in small increases in PR interval but has not usually produced abnormal prolongation.

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism

Diltiazem is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is subject to an extensive first-pass effect, giving an absolute bioavailability of about 40%. Diltiazem undergoes extensive metabolism in which 2% to 4% of the unchanged drug appears in the urine. In vitro binding studies show diltiazem is 70% to 80% bound to plasma proteins. Competitive in vitro ligand binding studies have also shown diltiazem binding is not altered by therapeutic concentrations of digoxin, hydrochlorothiazide, phenylbutazone, propranolol, salicylic acid, or warfarin. The plasma elimination half-life following single or multiple drug administration is approximately 3.0 to 4.5 hours. Desacetyl diltiazem is also present in the plasma at levels of 10% to 20% of the parent drug and is 25% to 50% as potent as a coronary vasodilator as diltiazem. Minimum therapeutic plasma levels of diltiazem appear to be in the range of 50 to 200 ng/mL. There is a departure from linearity when dose strengths are increased. A study that compared patients with normal hepatic function to patients with cirrhosis found an increase in half-life and a 69% increase in AUC (area-under-the-plasma concentration vs time curve) in the hepatically impaired patients. A single study in nine patients with severely impaired renal functions showed no difference in the pharmacokinetic profile of diltiazem as compared to patients with normal renal function.

Diltiazem Tablets

Diltiazem is absorbed from the tablet formulation to about 98% of a reference solution. Single oral doses of 30 to 120 mg of diltiazem tablets result in detectable plasma levels within 30 to 60 minutes and peak plasma levels 2 to 4 hours after drug administration. As the dose of diltiazem tablets is increased from a daily dose of 120 mg (30 mg qid) to 240 mg (60 mg qid) daily, there is an increase in area-under-the-curve of 2.3 times. When the dose is increased from 240 mg to 360 mg daily, there is an increase in area-under-the-curve of 1.8 times.

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INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Adizem-XL Plus (Diltiazem Hydrochloride) tablets USP are indicated for the management of chronic stable angina and angina due to coronary artery spasm.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Diltiazem is contraindicated in (1) patients with sick sinus syndrome except in the presence of a functioning ventricular pacemaker, (2) patients with second- or third-degree AV block except in the presence of a functioning ventricular pacemaker, (3) patients with hypotension (less than 90 mm Hg systolic), (4) patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug, and (5) patients with acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary congestion documented by x-ray on admission.

WARNINGS

1. Cardiac Conduction. Diltiazem prolongs AV node refractory periods without significantly prolonging sinus node recovery time, except in patients with sick sinus syndrome. This effect may rarely result in abnormally slow heart rates (particularly in patients with sick sinus syndrome) or second- or third-degree AV block (six of 1243 patients for 0.48%). Concomitant use of diltiazem with beta-blockers or digitalis may result in additive effects on cardiac conduction. A patient with Prinzmetal's angina developed periods of asystole (2 to 5 seconds) after a single dose of 60 mg of diltiazem (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

2. Congestive Heart Failure. Although diltiazem has a negative inotropic effect in isolated animal tissue preparations, hemodynamic studies in humans with normal ventricular function have not shown a reduction in cardiac index nor consistent negative effects on contractility (dp/dt). Experience with the use of diltiazem alone or in combination with beta-blockers in patients with impaired ventricular function is very limited. Caution should be exercised when using the drug in such patients.

3. Hypotension. Decreases in blood pressure associated with diltiazem therapy may occasionally result in symptomatic hypotension.

4. Acute Hepatic Injury. In rare instances, significant elevations in enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, LDH, SGOT, SGPT, and other phenomena consistent with acute hepatic injury have been noted. These reactions have been reversible upon discontinuation of drug therapy. The relationship to diltiazem is uncertain in most cases, but probable in some (see PRECAUTIONS).

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PRECAUTIONS

General

Diltiazem is extensively metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys and in bile. As with any drug given over prolonged periods, laboratory parameters of renal and hepatic function should be monitored at regular intervals. The drug should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function. In subacute and chronic dog and rat studies designed to produce toxicity, high doses of diltiazem were associated with hepatic damage. In special subacute hepatic studies, oral doses of 125 mg/kg and higher in rats were associated with histological changes in the liver, which were reversible when the drug was discontinued. In dogs, doses of 20 mg/kg were also associated with hepatic changes; however, these changes were reversible with continued dosing. Dermatological events may be transient and may disappear despite continued use of diltiazem. However, skin eruptions progressing to erythema multiforme and/or exfoliative dermatitis have also been infrequently reported. Should a dermatologic reaction persist, the drug should be discontinued.

Drug Interactions

Due to the potential for additive effects, caution and careful titration are warranted in patients receiving diltiazem concomitantly with any agents known to affect cardiac contractility and/or conduction (see WARNINGS).

Pharmacologic studies indicate that there may be additive effects in prolonging AV conduction when using beta-blockers or digitalis concomitantly with diltiazem (see WARNINGS).

As with all drugs, care should be exercised when treating patients with multiple medications. Diltiazem is both a substrate and an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 3A4 enzyme system. Other drugs that are specific substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of this enzyme system may have a significant impact on the efficacy and side effect profile of diltiazem. Patients taking other drugs that are substrates of CYP450 3A4, especially patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment, may require dosage adjustment when starting or stopping concomitantly administered diltiazem in order to maintain optimum therapeutic blood levels.

Anesthetics

The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity, as well as the vascular dilation associated with anesthetics, may be potentiated by calcium channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium blockers should be titrated carefully.

Benzodiazepines

Studies showed that diltiazem increased the AUC of midazolam and triazolam by 3 to 4 fold and the Cmax by 2 fold, compared to placebo. The elimination half-life of midazolam and triazolam also increased during coadministration with diltiazem. These pharmacokinetic effects seen during diltiazem coadministration can result in increased clinical effects (e.g., prolonged sedation) of both midazolam and triazolam.

Beta-Blockers

Controlled and uncontrolled domestic studies suggest that concomitant use of diltiazem and beta-blockers is usually well tolerated. Available data are not sufficient, however, to predict the effects of concomitant treatment, particularly in patients with left ventricular dysfunction or cardiac conduction abnormalities.

Administration of diltiazem concomitantly with propranolol in five normal volunteers resulted in increased propranolol levels in all subjects, and bioavailability of propranolol was increased approximately 50%. In vitro, propranolol appears to be displaced from its binding sites by diltiazem. If combination therapy is initiated or withdrawn in conjunction with propranolol, an adjustment in the propranolol dose may be warranted (see WARNINGS).

Buspirone

In nine healthy subjects, diltiazem significantly increased the mean buspirone AUC 5.5 fold and Cmax 4.1 fold compared to placebo. The T1/2 and Tmax of buspirone were not significantly affected by diltiazem. Enhanced effects and increased toxicity of buspirone may be possible during concomitant administration with diltiazem. Subsequent dose adjustments may be necessary during coadministration, and should be based on clinical assessment.

Carbamazepine

Concomitant administration of diltiazem with carbamazepine has been reported to result in elevated serum levels of carbamazepine resulting in toxicity in some cases. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored for a potential drug interaction.

Cimetidine

A study in six healthy volunteers has shown a significant increase in peak diltiazem plasma levels (58%) and area-under-the-curve (53%) after a 1 week course of cimetidine at 1200 mg per day and a single dose of diltiazem 60 mg. Ranitidine produced smaller, nonsignificant increases. The effect may be mediated by cimetidine's known inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P-450, the enzyme system responsible for the first-pass metabolism of diltiazem. Patients currently receiving diltiazem therapy should be carefully monitored for a change in pharmacological effect when initiating and discontinuing therapy with cimetidine. An adjustment in the diltiazem dose may be warranted.

Clonidine

Sinus bradycardia resulting in hospitalization and pacemaker insertion has been reported in association with the use of clonidine concurrently with diltiazem. Monitor heart rate in patients receiving concomitant diltiazem and clonidine.

Cyclosporine

A pharmacokinetic interaction between diltiazem and cyclosporine has been observed during studies involving renal and cardiac transplant patients. In renal and cardiac transplant recipients, a reduction of cyclosporine trough dose ranging from 15% to 48% was necessary to maintain concentrations similar to those seen prior to the addition of diltiazem. If these agents are to be administered concurrently, cyclosporine concentrations should be monitored, especially when diltiazem therapy is initiated, adjusted, or discontinued. The effect of cyclosporine on diltiazem plasma concentrations has not been evaluated.

Digitalis

Administration of diltiazem with digoxin in 24 healthy male subjects increased plasma digoxin concentrations approximately 20%. Another investigator found no increase in digoxin levels in 12 patients with coronary artery disease. Since there have been conflicting results regarding the effect of digoxin levels, it is recommended that digoxin levels be monitored when initiating, adjusting, and discontinuing diltiazem therapy to avoid possible over- or under-digitalization.

Quinidine

Diltiazem significantly increases the AUC (0→∞) of quinidine by 51%, T1/ 2 by 36%, and decreases its CLoral by 33%. Monitoring for quinidine adverse effects may be warranted and the dose adjusted accordingly.

Rifampin

Coadministration of rifampin with diltiazem lowered the diltiazem plasma concentrations to undetectable levels. Coadministration of diltiazem with rifampin or any known CYP3A4 inducer should be avoided when possible, and alternative therapy considered.

Statins

Diltiazem is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has been shown to increase significantly the AUC of some statins. The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with statins metabolized by CYP3A4 may be increased with concomitant use of diltiazem. When possible, use a non-CYP3A4-metabolized statin together with diltiazem; otherwise, dose adjustments for both diltiazem and the statin should be considered along with close monitoring for signs and symptoms of any statin related adverse events.

In a healthy volunteer cross-over study, coadministration of a single 20 mg dose of simvastatin at the end of a 14 day regimen with 120 mg BID diltiazem SR resulted in a 5 fold increase in mean simvastatin AUC versus simvastatin alone. Subjects with increased average steady-state exposures of diltiazem showed a greater fold increase in simvastatin exposure. Computer-based simulations showed that at a daily dose of 480 mg of diltiazem, an 8 to 9 fold mean increase in simvastatin AUC can be expected. If coadministration of simvastatin with diltiazem is required, limit the daily doses of simvastatin to 10 mg and diltiazem to 240 mg.

In a ten-subject randomized, open label, 4 way cross-over study, co-administration of diltiazem (120 mg BID diltiazem SR for 2 weeks) with a single 20 mg dose of lovastatin resulted in 3 to 4 fold increase in mean lovastatin AUC and Cmax versus lovastatin alone. In the same study, there was no significant change in 20 mg single dose pravastatin AUC and Cmax during diltiazem coadministration. Diltiazem plasma levels were not significantly affected by lovastatin or pravastatin.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

A 24 month study in rats and a 21 month study in mice showed no evidence of carcinogenicity. There was also no mutagenic response in in vitro bacterial tests. No intrinsic effect on fertility was observed in rats.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category C

Reproduction studies have been conducted in mice, rats, and rabbits. Administration of doses ranging from five to ten times greater than the daily recommended therapeutic dose has resulted in embryo and fetal lethality. These doses, in some studies, have been reported to cause skeletal abnormalities. In the perinatal/postnatal studies, there was some reduction in early individual pup weights and survival rates. There was an increased incidence of stillbirths at doses of 20 times the human dose or greater.

There are no well-controlled studies in pregnant women; therefore, use diltiazem in pregnant women only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

Diltiazem is excreted in human milk. One report suggests that concentrations in breast milk may approximate serum levels. If use of diltiazem is deemed essential, an alternative method of infant feeding should be instituted.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of diltiazem did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

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ADVERSE REACTIONS

Serious adverse reactions have been rare in studies carried out to date, but it should be recognized that patients with impaired ventricular function and cardiac conduction abnormalities usually have been excluded.

In domestic placebo-controlled angina trials, the incidence of adverse reactions reported during diltiazem therapy was not greater than that reported during placebo therapy.

The following represent occurrences observed in clinical studies of angina patients. In many cases, the relationship to diltiazem has not been established. The most common occurrences from these studies, as well as their frequency of presentation, are edema (2.4%), headache (2.1%), nausea (1.9%), dizziness (1.5%), rash (1.3%), and asthenia (1.2%). In addition, the following events were reported infrequently (less than 1%):

Cardiovascular: Angina, arrhythmia, AV block (first-degree), AV block (second- or third-degree – see WARNINGS, Cardiac Conduction), bradycardia, bundle branch block, congestive heart failure, ECG abnormality, flushing, hypotension, palpitations, syncope, tachycardia, ventricular extrasystoles.

Nervous System: Abnormal dreams, amnesia, depression, gait abnormality, hallucinations, insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, personality change, somnolence, tremor.

Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, dysgeusia, dyspepsia, mild elevations of alkaline phosphatase, SGOT, SGPT, and LDH (see WARNINGS, Acute Hepatic Injury), thirst, vomiting, weight increase.

Dermatological: Petechiae, photosensitivity, pruritus, urticaria.

Other: Amblyopia, CPK elevation, dry mouth, dyspnea, epistaxis, eye irritation, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, impotence, muscle cramps, nasal congestion, nocturia, osteoarticular pain, polyuria, sexual difficulties, tinnitus.

The following postmarketing events have been reported infrequently in patients receiving diltiazem: acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, allergic reactions, alopecia, angioedema (including facial or periorbital edema), asystole, erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), extrapyramidal symptoms, gingival hyperplasia, hemolytic anemia, increased bleeding time, leukopenia, photosensitivity (including lichenoid keratosis and hyperpigmentation at sun-exposed skin areas), purpura, retinopathy, myopathy, and thrombocytopenia. There have been observed cases of a generalized rash, some characterized as leukocytoclastic vasculitis. In addition, events such as myocardial infarction have been observed, which are not readily distinguishable from the natural history of the disease in these patients. A definitive cause and effect relationship between these events and diltiazem therapy cannot yet be established. Exfoliative dermatitis (proven by rechallenge) has also been reported.

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OVERDOSAGE

The oral LD50s in mice and rats range from 415 to 740 mg/kg and from 560 to 810 mg/kg, respectively. The intravenous LD50s in these species were 60 and 38 mg/kg, respectively. The oral LD50 in dogs is considered to be in excess of 50 mg/kg, while lethality was seen in monkeys at 360 mg/kg.

The toxic dose in man is not known. Due to extensive metabolism, blood levels after a standard dose of diltiazem can vary over tenfold, limiting the usefulness of blood levels in overdose cases.

There have been reports of diltiazem overdose in amounts ranging from < 1 g to 18 g. Of cases with known outcome, most patients recovered and in cases with a fatal outcome, the majority involved multiple drug ingestion.

Events observed following diltiazem overdose included bradycardia, hypotension, heart block, and cardiac failure. Most reports of overdose described some supportive medical measure and/or drug treatment. Bradycardia frequently responded favorably to atropine, as did heart block, although cardiac pacing was also frequently utilized to treat heart block. Fluids and vasopressors were used to maintain blood pressure, and in cases of cardiac failure, inotropic agents were administered. In addition, some patients received treatment with ventilatory support, gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and/or intravenous calcium.

The effectiveness of intravenous calcium administration to reverse the pharmacological effects of diltiazem overdose has been inconsistent. In a few reported cases, overdose with calcium channel blockers associated with hypotension and bradycardia that was initially refractory to atropine became more responsive to atropine after the patients received intravenous calcium. In some cases intravenous calcium has been administered (1 g calcium chloride or 3 g calcium gluconate) over 5 minutes and repeated every 10 to 20 minutes as necessary. Calcium gluconate has also been administered as a continuous infusion at a rate of 2 g per hour for 10 hours. Infusions of calcium for 24 hours or more may be required. Patients should be monitored for signs of hypercalcemia.

In the event of overdose or exaggerated response, appropriate supportive measures should be employed in addition to gastrointestinal decontamination. Diltiazem does not appear to be removed by peritoneal or hemodialysis. Limited data suggest that plasmapheresis or charcoal hemoperfusion may hasten diltiazem elimination following overdose. Based on the known pharmacological effects of diltiazem and/or reported clinical experiences, the following measures may be considered:

Bradycardia: Administer atropine (0.6 to 1 mg). If there is no response to vagal blockade, administer isoproterenol cautiously.

High-Degree AV Block: Treat as for bradycardia above. Fixed high-degree AV block should be treated with cardiac pacing.

Cardiac Failure: Administer inotropic agents (isoproterenol, dopamine, or dobutamine) and diuretics.

Hypotension: Vasopressors (e.g., dopamine or norepinephrine).

Actual treatment and dosage should depend on the severity of the clinical situation and the judgment and experience of the treating physician.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Exertional Angina Pectoris Due to Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease or Angina Pectoris at Rest Due to Coronary Artery Spasm

Dosage must be adjusted to each patient's needs. Starting with 30 mg four times daily, before meals and at bedtime, dosage should be increased gradually at 1 to 2 day intervals until optimum response is obtained. Although individual patients may respond to any dosage level, the average optimum dosage range appears to be 180 to 360 mg/day. There are no available data concerning dosage requirements in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function. If the drug must be used in such patients, titration should be carried out with particular caution.

Concomitant Use With Other Cardiovascular Agents

  • Sublingual NTG may be taken as required to abort acute anginal attacks during Adizem-XL Plus (Diltiazem Hydrochloride) tablet therapy.
  • Prophylactic Nitrate Therapy: Adizem-XL Plus (Diltiazem Hydrochloride) tablets may be safely coadministered with short- and long-acting nitrates, but there have been no controlled studies to evaluate the antianginal effectiveness of this combination.
  • Beta-blockers. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.)

HOW SUPPLIED

Adizem-XL Plus (Diltiazem Hydrochloride) tablets USP are available as:

30 mg - faint orange, round, film-coated, biconvex, unscored tablets, debossed with "93" and "318" on one side and plain on the other side. Available in bottles of 100 and 500.

60 mg – orange, round, film-coated, biconvex tablets, scored in half on one side, debossed with "93" and "319" on each side of the score and plain on the other side. Available in bottles of 100 and 500.

90 mg - faint orange, oblong, film-coated tablets, scored in half on one side, debossed with "93" and "320" on each side of the score and plain on the other side. Available in bottles of 100.

120 mg - orange, oblong, film-coated tablets, scored in half on one side, debossed with "93" and "321" on each side of the score and plain on the other side. Available in bottles of 100.

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).

KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.

Manufactured In India By:

PIRAMAL ENTERPRISES LIMITED

Pithampur, Madhya Pradesh, India

Manufactured For:

TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA

Sellersville, PA 18960

Rev. M 8/2012

Diltiazem Hcl 60mg Tablet

structural formula

Hydrochlorothiazide:


Adizem-XL Plus information

Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) is an antihypertensive, diuretic drug that acts on the electrolyte reabsorption in the renal tubular mechanism increasing the excretion of chloride and sodium in equivalent amounts. The exact mechanism of its antihypertensive action is not known at this time.

Adizem-XL Plus indications

Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) is typically employed for the treatment of patients suffering from hypertension, either as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive medication. It is also employed in some cases as a diuretic agent. Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) therapy may also be prescribed for the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis, edema (in patients suffering from congestive heart failure), nephrotic syndrome, drug induced edema, chronic renal failure or acute glomerulonephritis. Health care professionals may prescribe this drug in order to treat other medical conditions as well; if you would like to know more about the reasons you have been prescribed this drug, it is advised to ask your personal physician.

Adizem-XL Plus warnings

Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) may not be used in the treatment of patients who are allergic to this drug, any of its components or other sulfonamide-derived medication. Also, this drug may not be suitable for use in patients that are suffering from anuria, azotemia or impaired renal functions. Caution should be employed if the patient is suffering from hepatic disease. Other medical conditions may also influence the examining health care provider's decision of prescribing Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide); it is strongly recommended to make sure that the health care professional is fully aware of your health condition and medical history before starting a treatment with this drug.

Use of Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) during pregnancy or breast-feeding is also not recommended. This medicine may affect an unborn baby and it also passes into breast milk. As such, use of this drug in pregnant women or breast-feeding mothers should not be employed.

Adizem-XL Plus intake guidelines

You should always take Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) as you have been directed by the prescribing health care specialist. While in some cases daily administration of the drug is recommended, other patients may be prescribed an intermittent therapy. Also, the number of daily doses may vary. As such, it is best that you do not follow another patient's intake schedule. If you have difficulties understanding the intake guidelines that your prescribing health care professional has provided, you should ask for further explanations from an authorized health care specialist - such as a pharmacist, a doctor or a nurse.

Adizem-XL Plus dosage

The exact Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) dosage may vary greatly from one case to another, depending on the condition being treated, on the patient's medical history and general health condition, on his or her age as well as on a number of other factors. As such you are advised to use the exact Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) dosage that has been prescribed to you and never use the dosage prescribed to another patient or a dosage that you have been prescribed in the past. Taking a different Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) dose may cause the treatment to not have the desired effect, and if you take this drug in larger doses you may have a higher risk of developing side effects, or you may suffer from an overdose.

Adizem-XL Plus overdose

You should never exceed the Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) prescribed dosage, in order to avoid an overdose with this medication. However, if you consider that you are affected by an overdose with this drug it is advised to immediately consult your personal health care provider, the local poisons center or to go to the nearest medical facility to seek emergency medical attention. The common symptoms of an overdose with Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) are dehydration and cardiac arrhythmia. The patient may also suffer from electrolyte depletion and thus may present the relevant signs and symptoms.

Adizem-XL Plus missed dose

In case you have missed a dose of Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide), it is advised that you take the dose as soon as you remember. If the moment when you remember is too close to another intake of the medication, you should completely skip the missed Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) dose and take the next scheduled dose on time. You should never take a larger dose of the drug in order to make up for a missed dose, unless your prescribing health care provider directs you to do so.

Adizem-XL Plus side effects

In some patients Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) may cause side effects. While they are not very common, it is recommended to let your personal health care provider know if you begin experiencing any side effects. Several types of symptoms are possible: dizziness, headache, paresthesias, gastric irritation, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, pancreatitis, jaundice, hypotension. Metabolic side effects may include glycosuria, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia or hyponatremia. Renal failure or dysfunction may develop, as well as interstitial nephritis. Some patients reported experiencing muscle spasms, restlessness, unusual weakness and blurred vision. In some cases photosensitivity, anaphylactic reactions, respiratory distress, fever, rashes, vasculitis or toxic epidermal necrolysis have occurred.

Adizem-XL Plus drug reactions

Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide) may interact with barbiturates and narcotics, as well as with alcohol. If you are also following a treatment course with antidiabetic drugs, their dosage may need to be adjusted before starting to take Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide). This drug may have an additive effect with other antihypertensive medication. ACE inhibitors, ACTH, corticosteroids and skeletal muscle relaxants may also interact with this drug causing unwanted effects. This drug may not be properly absorbed if the patient is also taking Colestipol resins or Cholestyramine. NSAIDs, lithium and Pressor amines may affect or be affected by Adizem-XL Plus (Hydrochlorothiazide), and as such it is strongly recommended to let the prescribing health care provider know if you are taking these or any other drugs before starting a therapy course with this medicine. Other drug interactions that are not listed here are also possible.

Adizem-XL Plus pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Adizem-XL Plus available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Adizem-XL Plus destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Adizem-XL Plus Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Adizem-XL Plus pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE TABLET [QUALITEST PHARMACEUTICALS]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE TABLET, FILM COATED [BRYANT RANCH PREPACK]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. Dailymed."AMLODIPINE BESYLATE; HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE; OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Adizem-XL Plus?

Depending on the reaction of the Adizem-XL Plus after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Adizem-XL Plus not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Adizem-XL Plus addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sdrugs.com conducted a study on Adizem-XL Plus, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Adizem-XL Plus consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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