DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Adenosine Injection, USP is indicated as an adjunct to thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients unable to exercise adequately.
Adenosine Injection, USP, a pharmacologic stress agent, is indicated as an adjunct to thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients unable to exercise adequately (1)
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended Adenosine injection dose is 0.14 mg/kg/min infused over six minutes (total dose of 0.84 mg/kg) (Table 1).
Visually inspect Adenosine injection for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Do not administer Adenosine injection if it contains particulate matter or is discolored.
There are no data on the safety or efficacy of alternative Adenosine injection infusion protocols. The safety and efficacy of Adenosine injection administered by the intracoronary route have not been established.
The nomogram displayed in Table 1 was derived from the following general formula:
Recommended dose is 0.14 mg/kg/min infused over six minutes as a continuous peripheral intravenous infusion (total dose of 0.84 mg/kg) (2)
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Adenosine Injection, USP is supplied as 20 mL and 30 mL single-dose vials containing a sterile, nonpyrogenic, clear solution of Adenosine 3 mg per mL.
Adenosine Injection, USP: 3 mg per mL in single-dose vials (3)
Adenosine is contraindicated in patients with:
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Cardiac Arrest, Ventricular Arrhythmias, and Myocardial Infarction
Fatal and nonfatal cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia (requiring resuscitation), and myocardial infarction have occurred following Adenosine infusion. Avoid use in patients with symptoms or signs of acute myocardial ischemia, for example, unstable angina or cardiovascular instability; these patients may be at greater risk of serious cardiovascular reactions to Adenosine. Appropriate resuscitative measures should be available .
5.2 Sinoatrial and Atrioventricular Nodal Block
Adenosine exerts a direct depressant effect on the SA and AV nodes and may cause first-, second- or third-degree AV block, or sinus bradycardia. In clinical trials, approximately 6% of patients developed AV block following Adenosine administration .
Use Adenosine with caution in patients with pre-existing first-degree AV block or bundle branch block. Do not use in patients with high-grade AV block or sinus node dysfunction (except in patients with a functioning artificial pacemaker). Discontinue Adenosine in any patient who develops persistent or symptomatic high-grade AV block.
Adenosine administration can cause dyspnea, bronchoconstriction, and respiratory compromise. Adenosine should be used with caution in patients with obstructive lung disease not associated with bronchoconstriction (e.g., emphysema, bronchitis). Do not use in patients with bronchoconstriction or bronchospasm (e.g., asthma). Discontinue Adenosine in any patient who develops severe respiratory difficulties. Resuscitative measures should be available prior to Adenosine administration .
Adenosine is a potent peripheral vasodilator and can induce significant hypotension. The risk of serious hypotension may be higher in patients with autonomic dysfunction, hypovolemia, stenotic valvular heart disease, pericarditis or pericardial effusions, or stenotic carotid artery disease with cerebrovascular insufficiency. Discontinue Adenosine in any patient who develops persistent or symptomatic hypotension.
5.5 Cerebrovascular Accident
Hemorrhagic and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents have occurred. Hemodynamic effects of Adenosine including hypotension or hypertension can be associated with these adverse reactions .
New-onset or recurrence of convulsive seizures has occurred following Adenosine. Some seizures are prolonged and require emergent anticonvulsive management. Aminophylline may increase the risk of seizures associated with Adenosine. Methylxanthine use is not recommended in patients who experience seizures in association with Adenosine administration .
5.7 Hypersensitivity, Including Anaphylaxis
Dyspnea, throat tightness, flushing, erythema, rash, and chest discomfort have occurred. Symptomatic treatment may be required. Have personnel and appropriate treatment available. Resuscitative measures may be necessary if symptoms progress .
5.8 Atrial Fibrillation
Adenosine can cause atrial fibrillation in patients with or without a history of atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation typically began 1.5 to 3 minutes after initiation of Adenosine, lasted for 15 seconds to 6 hours, and spontaneously converted to normal sinus rhythm .
Adenosine can induce clinically significant increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Most increases resolved spontaneously within several minutes, but in some cases, hypertension lasted for several hours .
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the prescribing information:
Most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 10%) are: flushing; chest discomfort; shortness of breath; headache; throat, neck or jaw discomfort; gastrointestinal discomfort; and dizziness (6.1)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-866-625-1618 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch .
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The following adverse reactions, with an incidence of at least 1%, were reported with Adenosine among 1,421 patients in clinical trials. 11% of the adverse reactions occurred several hours after Adenosine administration. 8% of the adverse reactions began with Adenosine infusion and persisted for up to 24 hours.
The most common (incidence ≥ 10%) adverse reactions to Adenosine are flushing, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, headache, throat, neck or jaw discomfort, gastrointestinal discomfort, and dizziness (Table 2).
Adverse reactions to Adenosine of any severity reported in less than 1% of patients include:
6.2 Post-Marketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been reported from marketing experience with Adenosine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, are associated with concomitant diseases and multiple drug therapies and surgical procedures, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Effects of Other Drugs on Adenosine
7.2 Effects of Adenosine on Other Drugs
Adenosine injection has been given with other cardioactive drugs (such as beta adrenergic blocking agents, cardiac glycosides, and calcium channel blockers) without apparent adverse interactions, but its effectiveness with these agents has not been systematically evaluated. Because of the potential for additive or synergistic depressant effects on the SA and AV nodes, however, Adenosine should be used with caution in the presence of these agents .
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Adenosine; nor have studies been performed in pregnant women. Because it is not known whether Adenosine can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women, Adenosine should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether Adenosine is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from Adenosine in nursing infants, the decision to interrupt nursing after administration of Adenosine or not to administer Adenosine, should take into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of Adenosine in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies with Adenosine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged younger than 65 years to determine whether they respond differently. Other reported experience has not revealed clinically relevant differences of the response of elderly in comparison to younger patients.
The half-life of Adenosine is less than 10 seconds and adverse reactions of Adenosine usually resolve quickly when the infusion is discontinued, although delayed or persistent reactions have been observed. Methylxanthines, such as caffeine, aminophylline, and theophylline, are competitive Adenosine receptor antagonists and theophylline has been used to terminate persistent adverse reactions. In clinical trials, theophylline (50 to 125 mg slow intravenous injection) was used to attenuate Adenosine adverse reactions in approximately 2% of patients. Methylxanthine use is not recommended in patients who experience seizures in association with Adenosine .
Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside and is chemically described as 6-amino-9-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-9-H-purine. Adenosine has the following structural formula:
The molecular formula for Adenosine is C10H13N5O4 and its molecular weight is 267.24.
Adenosine is a white crystalline powder. It is soluble in water and practically insoluble in alcohol. Solubility increases by warming and lowering the pH of the solution.
Each Adenosine Injection, USP vial contains a sterile, non-pyrogenic solution of Adenosine 3 mg/mL and sodium chloride 9 mg/mL in water for injection, with pH between 4.5 and 7.5.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Adenosine causes cardiac vasodilation which increases cardiac blood flow. Adenosine is thought to exert its pharmacological effects through activation of purine receptors. Although the exact mechanism by which Adenosine receptor activation relaxes vascular smooth muscle is not known, there is evidence to support both inhibition of the slow inward calcium current reducing calcium uptake, and activation of adenylate cyclase through A2 receptors in smooth muscle cells. Adenosine may also lessen vascular tone by modulating sympathetic neurotransmission. The intracellular uptake of Adenosine is mediated by a specific transmembrane nucleoside transport system. Once inside the cell, Adenosine is rapidly phosphorylated by Adenosine kinase to Adenosine monophosphate, or deaminated by Adenosine deaminase to inosine. These intracellular metabolites of Adenosine are not vasoactive.
Myocardial uptake of thallium-201 is directly proportional to coronary blood flow. Since Adenosine significantly increases blood flow in normal coronary arteries with little or no increase in stenotic arteries, Adenosine causes relatively less thallium-201 uptake in vascular territories supplied by stenotic coronary arteries i.e., a greater difference is seen after Adenosine between areas served by normal and areas served by stenotic vessels than is seen prior to Adenosine.
Adenosine produces a direct negative chronotropic, dromotropic and inotropic effect on the heart, presumably due to A1-receptor agonism, and produces peripheral vasodilation, presumably due to A2-receptor agonism. The net effect of Adenosine in humans is typically a mild to moderate reduction in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure associated with a reflex increase in heart rate. Rarely, significant hypotension and tachycardia have been observed .
Intravenously administered Adenosine distributes from the circulation via cellular uptake, primarily by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. This process involves a specific transmembrane nucleoside carrier system that is reversible, nonconcentrative, and bidirectionally symmetrical.
Intracellular Adenosine is metabolized either via phosphorylation to Adenosine monophosphate by Adenosine kinase, or via deamination to inosine by Adenosine deaminase in the cytosol. Since Adenosine kinase has a lower Km and Vmax than Adenosine deaminase, deamination plays a significant role only when cytosolic Adenosine saturates the phosphorylation pathway. Inosine formed by deamination of Adenosine can leave the cell intact or can be degraded to hypoxanthine, xanthine, and ultimately uric acid. Adenosine monophosphate formed by phosphorylation of Adenosine is incorporated into the high-energy phosphate pool.
While extracellular Adenosine is primarily cleared from plasma by cellular uptake with a half-life of less than 10 seconds in whole blood, excessive amounts may be deaminated by an ecto-form of Adenosine deaminase.
As Adenosine does not require renal function for its activation or inactivation, renal impairment would not be expected to alter its effectiveness or tolerability.
As Adenosine does not require hepatic function for its activation or inactivation, hepatic impairment would not be expected to alter its effectiveness or tolerability.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate adenosine's carcinogenic potential or potential effects on fertility. Adenosine was negative for genotoxic potential in the Salmonella (Ames Test) and Mammalian Microsome Assay.
Adenosine, however, like other nucleosides at millimolar concentrations present for several doubling times of cells in culture, is known to produce a variety of chromosomal alterations.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
In two crossover comparative studies involving 319 subjects who could exercise (including 106 healthy volunteers and 213 patients with known or suspected coronary disease), Adenosine and exercise thallium images were compared by blinded observers. The images were concordant for the presence of perfusion defects in 85.5% of cases by global analysis (patient by patient) and up to 93% of cases based on vascular territories.
In the two studies, 193 patients also had recent coronary arteriography for comparison (healthy volunteers were not catheterized). The sensitivity for detecting angiographically significant disease (≥ 50% reduction in the luminal diameter of at least one major vessel) was 64% for Adenosine and 64% for exercise testing. The specificity was 54% for Adenosine and 65% for exercise testing. The 95% confidence limits for Adenosine sensitivity were 56% to 78% and for specificity were 37% to 71%.
Intracoronary Doppler flow catheter studies have demonstrated that a dose of intravenous Adenosine of 0.14 mg/kg/min produces maximum coronary hyperemia (relative to intracoronary papaverine) in approximately 95% of cases within two to three minutes of the onset of the infusion. Coronary blood flow velocity returns to basal levels within one to two minutes of discontinuing the Adenosine infusion.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
16.1 How Supplied
Adenosine Injection, USP is supplied as 20 mL and 30 mL single-dose vials of sterile, nonpyrogenic solution in normal saline as follows:
16.2 Storage and Handling
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° and 30°C (59° and 86°F).
Do not refrigerate as crystallization may occur. If crystallization has occurred, dissolve crystals by warming to room temperature. The solution must be clear at the time of use.
Discard unused portion.
Sterile, Nonpyrogenic, Preservative-free.
The container closure is not made with natural rubber latex.
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Mfd. for SAGENT Pharmaceuticals
Schaumburg, IL 60195 (USA)
Made in India
©2014 Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Revised: September 2014
PACKAGE LABEL – PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – Vial Label
Adenosine Injection, USP
60 mg per 20 mL (3 mg per mL)
For Intravenous Infusion Only
20 mL Single-Dose Vial
Adenosine pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Adenosine available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Adenosine destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Adenosine Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Adenosine pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Adenosine?
Depending on the reaction of the Adenosine after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Adenosine not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Adenosine addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
ReviewsDrugs.com conducted a study on Adenosine, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Adenosine consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology